EMPLOYMENT LAW TRAINING, EMPLOYMENT LAW TRAINING COURSES, EMPLOYMENT LAW COURSES ONLINE, EMPLOYMENT LAW, EMPLOYMENT LAW SEMINARS, Employment Law Courses, Employment Law Training Course, Employment Law Training for HR Professionals, Employment Law Training Seminars, HR Training and Development, HR Training Courses, FMLA, ADA, EEO,, FSLA, HIPPA


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Improving On-The-Job Performance And Skills. Reducing Litigation Risks.
Since 1979
Employment Law Training Seminars, Certification, ONLINE Employment Law Training, DVD Training Classes, In-House Training, AUDIO Training, Teleconferences


Training HR

Institute for Applied
Management & Law, Inc.

450 Newport Center Drive, Suite 390
Newport Beach, California 92660

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(949) 760-1700

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Distinctions Between a Contractor & Employee - Employment Law Rights ( 51,357 )
Sex Discrimination & Sexual Harassment in Employment ( 7,568 )
Know Different Acts In Employment Law ( 1,157 )
Human Resource Management at Microsoft ( 279,769 )
Personality Types In The Workplace ( 145,915 )
The Legal and Effective Business Use of Social Media in the Workplace ( 1136 )
California Labor Attorney Discusses Whether to File Age Discrimination Complaints with the EEOC, the DFEH, or the DLSE ( 898 )
Top Five Wage And Hour Violations To Avoid As An Employer ( 960 )
Advice for New Managers to Avoid Nightmarish Discrimination Lawsuits ( 343 )
Employee Discrimination Claims Skyrocket ( 216 )
How to Prevent Sexual Harassment in the Workplace ( 662 )
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Orange County CA, Visit: OrangeCountyCA

"Many employers are working their employees harder, not smarter.
- David Coates"

"The magic formula that successful businesses have discovered is to
treat customers like guests and
employees like people.
--Thomas J. Peters"

"In the end, all business operations
can be reduced to three words: people, product and profits. Unless you've got a good team, you can't do much with the other two. --Lee Iacocca"




Welcome To
Employment Law Training and HR Training

IAML is the nation's leading producer of comprehensive employment law seminars.

Learn Amazing Skills, While Reducing Litigation Risks

Prominent employment law attorneys and popular IAML instructors, Raymond M. Deeny (left) Partner, Sherman & Howard; John F. Wymer, III (second from left), Partner, Paul, Hastings, Janofsky & Walker; and Gavin S. Appleby (second from right), Partner, Littler Mendelson; with Robert M. Lee (center), Executive Director, IAML; and Eric E. Jackson, President, IAML (far right).

IAML Seminars: For more than 38 years, IAML's sole focus has been to produce the finest, most current and practically-oriented training programs.
We are proud of our reputation, which is based on:

Improves your on-the-job performance and skills...immediately.
Providing virtually all the information needed to function effectively in the employment law aspect of a job.
Increasing your confidence in dealing with complex employee relations law issues.
Helps participants to deal more pro-actively with employee relations law issues.
Enable participants to take concrete and specific actions to substantially reduce their organization's downside risk to expensive, time-consuming and risky litigation.
Increasing the participant's value to their organization. Provides participants with an excellent environment to meet colleagues and share ideas.
Earns full program participants a widely recognized and respected certificate credential.


"Absolutely the best training I have ever attended. Ray Deeny is a fabulous instructor. His cutting edge knowledge and information made learning fun. Time flew by, left me wanting more." Gary Sackman Vice President, Human Resources W & W Steel, LLC Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

Click on the seminar title for detailed information.


The definitive seminar in the employment law field since 1979. Practical, effective, completely current and comprehensive...professionally rewarding and stimulating. Extensive materials and truly outstanding faculty of prominent employment law attorneys who are also excellent presenters. Rigorous, thorough...and enjoyable.

Irvine      2014 Comming Soon            Newport Beach            July 29-August 2, 2013
Orlando      2014 Comming Soon            Boston            August 19-23, 2013
Scottsdale      2014 Comming Soon            Chicago            September 23-27, 2013
Atlanta      2014 Comming Soon            Las Vegas            October 21-25, 2013
Las Vegas      2014 Comming Soon            Washington, DC            November 18-22, 2013
Orlando          July 22-26, 2013


This 4 1/2 day seminar provides a comprehensive foundation in critical human resource subjects including and employment law overview; how to cope-complying with the legal requirements; hiring strategies; training; and compensation practices. Designed for both novice and experienced HR professionals. Terrific faculty.

Irvine      2014 Comming Soon Newport Beach July 29-August 2, 2013
Orlando      2014 Comming Soon Las Vegas October 21-25, 2013
Orlando       July 22-26, 2013


2 1/2 days of hard-hitting, up-to-the-minute information on all recent, significant employment law developments. Designed for experienced HR professionals and attorneys. Features superb faculty (Raymond M. Deeny, John F. Wymer III and Gavin S. Appleby), important topics, collegial atmosphere, and special materials. A not-to-be-missed conference. Participant favorite.

Las Vegas      2014 Comming Soon Orlando October 16-18, 2013
Washington, DC      2014 Comming Soon Las Vegas October 23-25, 2013

This highly interactive Certificate program for experienced human resource professionals. This 2 1/2 program has received outstanding evaluations from attendees. Covers a variety of substantive employment law issues with a focus on their practical application on-the-job. Team taught by Gavin Appleby, a highly-rated IAML presenter and prominent employment law attorney and Cindy Cook, a seasoned HR consultant with more than 20 years of experience.

Las Vegas      2014 Comming Soon Chicago September 23-25, 2013

This highly rated 4 1/2 day seminar provides state-of-the-art best practices for employee benefits professionals. Current, practically-oriented and detailed information. Outstanding faculty, extensive materials. Indispensable training for the benefits professional.

Orlando      2014 Comming Soon Newport Beach July 29-August 2, 2013
Scottsdale      2014 Comming Soon Las Vegas October 21-25, 2013
Orlando July 22-26, 2013 Washington, DC November 18-22, 2013


This 2 1/2 day seminar is a timely, thorough and highly enjoyable update which analyzes up-to-the-minute issues and developments along with their real-world impact. The seminar explores the highly complex benefits challenges you face and provide techniques for managing and solving the problems, liabilities and contradictions they can pose. Taught by attorneys Thomas Schendt, John Hickman and H. Douglas Hinson.

Las Vegas      2014 Comming Soon



Law Training

Certificate In Employee

of HR



Certificate In

Law Seminar


If the below show pictures are not coming up please "click here"

The Certificate in Employee Relations Law Seminar is the original, proven seminar that has been presented many hundreds of times since 1979. This is a practical, professionally prepared and presented program which covers all facets of employment law.

Nearly every past attendee said their participation in the program was worth the time and investment.
More than 99% of past participants say this program improved their professional performance on-the-job.
95% of past participants say the Certificate in Employee Relations Law Seminar is better than other programs of its type.
On a scale of 1 to 5, with 5 being the highest possible ranking, the average evaluation of the faculty has been 4.7.


Seminar Structure
The Certificate in Employee Relations Law Seminar is comprised of three "blocks" of instruction which are presented over 4 1/2 consecutive days. Participants are encouraged to register for the entire program however, registrations for only one or two of the blocks are accepted.

Practical Information for On the Job Applications
All instruction and reference materials were developed so they can be applied in the everyday workplace. Participants learn the requirements of laws and regulations and how to deal with them in their own organizations.

Extensive Materials
The seminar reference materials (about 1,000 pages) are specially prepared for this seminar and are completely current. The materials are provided to participants during the seminar and serve as valuable desktop reference manuals on the job.

Certificate Awarded
The Certificate in Employee Relations Law is awarded when a participant attends all three blocks of the seminar. No examinations are given. These engraved certificates are mailed two to four weeks after the end of each program. NOTE: If you complete only one or two blocks you can still receive a certificate if you complete the remaining block or blocks within a two year period. All blocks need not be completed at the same location.

Renowned Instructors
All seminar block leaders are nationally renowned employment law attorneys from leading law firms who have extraordinary legal backgrounds, extensive practical experience and a demonstrated ability to teach the material in an interesting manner.

Personal Interaction
Faculty members encourage questions from participants. All your questions will be answered during the ample time provided during sessions, at breaks, lunches and after the sessions. The collegial atmosphere fosters the sharing of ideas and experiences among participants.

Enhanced Career Performance
Participants tell us that this program improves on-the-job effectiveness, and increases capacity for career growth.


REVIEWS & Testimonials:
What People are Saying About Our Employment Law Training ...


"I was extremely happy with the presenters. The information exceeded my expectations and the other participants were very helpful in sharing their experiences. I signed up for this course after researching 'human resources training' on the Internet. I reviewed a lot of different training programs and determined the information on your website was the most thorough and comprehensive." Teresa Malekzadeh Executive Director John F. Font PhD & Associates San Jose, California


"Di Ann Sanchez was extremely dynamic in her presentation skills and seemed to take a vested interest in our learning the information. I was very impressed with her background and appreciated hearing her personal experiences which help to bring the information to life!" Ashley Heird Senior Human Resources Manager Bloomin' Brands Tampa, Florida


"Both instructors were very informative and presented very well. The knowledge I gained was great and the interaction was outstanding. Well worth the time and money." Alan J. Rasmussen Regional Association Relations Manager Big Lots, Inc. Denver, Colorado


"This was an interesting approach. I am used to formal presentations, with audience dialogue and questions. The use of case studies generated a lot of discussion. I also enjoyed that Mr. Wymer encouraged audience participation and allowed us to arrive at the answers instead of just answering the questions for us." Liz Forchione Human Resources Generalist CommDoc, Inc. Uniontown, Ohio


"Absolutely the best training I have ever attended. Ray Deeny is a fabulous instructor. His cutting edge knowledge and information made learning fun. Time flew by, left me wanting more." Gary Sackman Vice President, Human Resources W & W Steel, LLC Oklahoma City, Oklahoma


"IAML instructors bring real world knowledge and experience to the subject and make the sessions informative and fun." Anthony Pipitone Vice President, Finance & Administration Center City District Philadelphia, Pennsylvania


"Great class structure. Loved the case studies and group interaction. Relevant and engaging. Also liked the law updates and legal perspective." Christy Richards HR Service Partner Mayo Clinic Rochester Rochester, Minnesota


"We covered a lot of material. Really enjoyed mixing up in groups and hearing how other companies handle a particular situation. Interesting and insightful." Judith M. Shorter, PHR Sr. Human Resources Generalist Purdue Research Foundation Lafayette, Indiana


"Gavin and Cindy's knowledge is overwhelming - their ability to get participants fully engaged is amazing. I was so thrilled with the workshop that half-way through I called my general manager and thanked her for allowing me to attend. A truly professional workshop conducted with high standards and expertise. Postively one of the best workshops I've ever attended, worth every minute away from the office." Shani Dues Human Resources Consultant Pooling Resources, Inc. Las Vegas, Nevada


"I really enjoyed the seminar. I learned a great deal and will definitely be able to apply what I learned once I'm back in the office." Alana Tomczyszyn Human Resources Generalist II CWS Capital Partners LLC Austin, Texas


"I always enjoy this seminar. It really means alot to fully trust the information that I receive from these wonderful instructors. We as HR professionals are very fortunate for their participation in IAML programs!" Sharon Moran Senior Benefits Administrator Salt River Materials Group Clarkdale, Arizona


Recent Clients For In-house Training Include:
American Express
Atlas Pacific Engineering
Beckman Coulter, Inc.
Clark County, Nevada
DENTSPLY International, Inc.
Human Resources Association of Central Missouri
JM Family Enterprises
Johnson & Johnson, ASP
Kirby Corporation
Lewis County General Hospital
Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Co.
Los Alamos National Laboratory
Neutrogena Corporation
Northrop Grumman
Origen Financial LLC
Reddy Ice, Inc.
Sandia National Laboratory
Starz Entertainment
STP Nuclear Operating Co.
The Home Depot
Time Warner Cable
UBS Investment Bank
UnitedHealth Group
Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.
Zurich North America
Some organizations have sponsored more than 100 employees and many have made this seminar mandatory or part of their regular training plan. We encourage you to review the partial list of participating organizations:
24 Hour Fitness Worldwide Inc.
3 Rivers Communications
A.R.E. Accessories LLC
AAA Mid-Atlantic
Abacus Technology Corporation
Abbe Inc.
Abbott Laboratories
Access Business Group
ACE Cash Express, Inc.
Activision Blizzard, Inc.
Acuren USA, Inc.
Acushnet Company
Adams County School District 14
Adelphi University
ADESA Corporation
Adidas Group
Advanstar Communications, Inc.
Advocate Health Care
Aerospace Corporation
AES Corporation
Affinion Group LLC
Affinity Group, Inc.
Agri Beef Co.
AHMC Healthcare
Aircraft Service International Group

Akeela, Inc.
Alamo Colleges
Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium
Alaska Permanent Fund Corp.
Alaska Waste
Alco Management, Inc.
Alfa Insurance Company
Alliance Imaging, Inc.
Allina Health System
Alpha Coal West, Inc.
Alpha Natural Resources
Alpha Packaging
Alta Bates Summit Medical Center
Alyeska Pipeline Service Co.
Amber Energy
American Association for the Advancement of Science
American Baptist Homes of the Midwest
American BOA
American Cancer Society, Inc.
American Dehydrated Foods, Inc.
American Eagle Outfitters, Inc.
American Express
American Family Insurance
American Honda Motor Company
American International Group (AIG)
American Proteins, Inc.
American Showa
American University
AmeriGas Propane Company Ameripath, Inc.
Ameriprise Financial Inc.
Ameristar Casino, Inc.
Amerisure Mutual Insurance Co.
AMI Semiconductor
Amway Corporation
Amylin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Amy's Kitchen
Ancilla Domini Sisters, Inc.
Androscoggin Valley Hospital
Angel of the Winds Casino
Anne Arundel Medical Center
Antelope Valley Hospital
Apple Inc.
Applied Minds, LLC
Aramark Corporation
Arbitration Forums, Inc.
ArcelorMittal USA
Arctec Alaska
Arctic Slope Native Corporation
Aris Horticulture, Inc.
Arizona Public Service Co. (APS)
Arizona State University
Army & Air Force Exchange Service
Art Institute of Portland
Arvato Services
Arvest Bank Group
ArvinMeritor, Inc.
Asahi Kasei Plastics North America
Ascendum Solutions LLC
Aspen Insurance
Aspen Medical Products
Associated Wholesale Grocers, Inc.
Association of Christian Schools International
Assurant Inc.
Assurant Solutions
Assurant Specialty Property
Astellas Pharma US, Inc.
AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP
Atlanta Public Schools
Atlas Pacific Engineering
Atlas Roofing Corporation
Attachmate Corporation
Atwood Oceanics, Inc.
Aurora Health Care
Automobile Club of Southern California
Avago Technologies
Avalere Health, LLC
Aviation Communication & Surveillance Systems, LLC
Avon Products
Awarepoint Corporation B/E
Aerospace, Inc.
Bacardi U.S.A.
BAE Systems
Bain & Company
Baker & McKenzie, LLP
Baker Concrete Construction
Baker Hughes Ball Corporation
Banner Health
Baptist Health South Florida
Barksdale Control Products
Barney & Barney, LLC
Barrick Cortez
Barrick Gold of North America, Inc.
Barrick Goldstrike Mines Inc.
Bar-S Foods
Base Technologies, Inc.
Bashas' Inc.
Batesville Casket Company
Battelle Energy Alliance
Baxter Healthcare Corporation
Bay Area Hospital
Bay Medical Center
BayCare Health Systems
Bayer MaterialScience
Baylor College of Medicine
BBA Aviation Shared Services, Inc. Beachbody
Bechtel Corporation
Bechtel National, Inc.
Bechtel Systems & Infrastructure, Inc.
Beckman Coulter, Inc.
Bed Bath & Beyond, Inc.
Bemis Company, Inc.
Bentley University
Benton Public Utilities District
Berkowitz Dick Pollack & Brant
BET Networks
Betaseed, Inc.
Bethesda Lutheran Homes & Services
BHP Billiton
Bible League International
BIC Advertising Promotional Products
Big Lots, Inc.
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Billy Graham Evangelistic Association
Biotest Pharmaceuticals Corp.
BJ's Bingo
Black Butte Coal Company
Black Hills Federal Credit Union
Blandin Foundation
Blood Alliance
Bloomin' Brands
Blount, Inc.
Blue Ridge Electric Membership Corp.
BlueShield of Illinois
BlueShield of Massachusetts
BlueCross BlueShield of Tennessee
Boar's Head Provisions Co., Inc. Boehringer Ingelheim Corporation
Boeing Company
Boot Hill Casino & Resort
Booz Allen Hamilton
Borough of North Slope
Boston Private Bank & Trust
Boston Properties Inc
Bovie Medical Corporation
Boyd Gaming Corporation
Brand Energy & Infrastructure Services
Braun Electric Company
BRE Properties, Inc.
BreitBurn Management Company, LLC
Bremner Food Group
Briggs & Stratton Corporation
Bristol Hospital
Broadcom Corporation
Brookhaven National Laboratory
Brownstein Hyatt Farber Schreck, LLP
Bryan Cave Powell Goldstein LLP
Buccaneer, a General Dynamics Company Buchanan Street Partners
Buckeye Partners, L.P.
Buckeye Technologies, Inc.
Buckskin Mining Company
Burgess-Norton Manufacturing
Buy Buy Baby Inc.
C. Martin Company
C.R. Bard, Inc.
CACI International
Calibre Systems, Inc.
California Institute of Technology
California State University at Fresno
California State University at San Marcos
CalsonicKansei North America, Inc. Calvin College
Cambia Health Solutions
Canon Business Solutions
Canon ITS, Inc.
Canon USA, Inc.
Capital Group Companies, Inc.
Caraustar Industries Inc.
Carboline Company
Carefirst BlueCross BlueShield Cargotec Holding Inc.
Carlisle FoodService Products
Carlson Companies Inc.
Cash America International, Inc. Cassidy Turley
Catalent Pharma Solutions
Catholic Diocese of Arlington
CB & I
CDM Resource Management
CDM Smith Inc.
CDS Global
CEC Entertainment, Inc.
Celanese Chemical Co. Inc.
Celebrity Cruises
Centegra Health System
Center City District
Central Arizona College
Central Garden & Pet Company
Central Hudson Gas & Electric
Centura Health
Ceridian Corporation
Cerner Corporation
Cessna Aircraft Company
CH2M HILL Companies, Ltd.
Champion Technologies
Chapel Valley Landscape Co.
Chapman Freeborn Airchartering Inc.
Charles G. Koch
Charitable Foundation
Charter School of San Diego
Checks Unlimited
Cheesecake Factory, Inc.
Chelan County Public Utilities District
Chenega Corporation
Chesapeake Energy Corporation
Chetco Federal Credit Union
Cheyenne Regional Medical Center
Chickasaw Nation
Chico's FAS, Inc.
Children's Hospital Boston
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Children's Hospital of the King's Daughters
Christ Fellowship
Christiana Care Health System
Chubb & Son, Inc.
Chubb Corporation
Chubb Group of Insurance Companies
CIBA Corporation
Cintas Corporation
Cisco Systems, Inc.
CITGO Petroleum Corporation
CitiTrends, Inc.
Citizens Energy Group
Citizens Property Insurance Corp.
City of Alexandria
City of Bethel
City of Birmingham
City of Bloomfield
City of Boise
City of Dothan
City of Fort Worth
City of Hope National Medical Center
City of Irvine
City of Kennewick
City of Killeen
City of Lakewood
City of Las Vegas
City of Longmont
City of Meridian
City of Overland Park
City of Racine
City of Rockwall
City of Stillwater
City of Tacoma
City of Vancouver
City of Washington DC
Clarian Health
Clean Harbors Environmental Services, Inc.
Clear Channel Communications, Inc.
Clearwater Paper Corporation
Cleco Corporation
Cleveland Clinic
Cloud Peak Energy
CNH America
Coastal Forest Resources Co.
Coca-Cola Bottling Co. Consolidated
Coca-Cola Bottling Company United
Coca-Cola Company
Coca-Cola Refreshments USA, Inc.
Coeur Alaska, Inc.
Coffee Regional Medical Center
Colgate-Palmolive Company
Colonial Pipeline Company
Colorado College
Comcast Cable Communications
ComDoc, Inc.
Commerce Bank
Commonwealth Credit Union
Commonwealth of Massachusetts Community Health Services, Inc.
CompBenefits Corporation
CompHealth Associates, Inc.
Computer Services Inc.
Compuware Corporation
CONSOL Energy Inc.
Consolidated Diesel Company
Constant Care Management Co.
Constellation Brands, Inc.
Constellation Wines
Continental Automotive Systems US Inc.
Cook Inlet Native Head Start
CoreLogic, Inc.
Cornerstone Chemical Company
Cornerstone OnDemand
Corporate One Federal Credit Union
Corporation Service Co.
Corrections Corporation of America
Costco Wholesale Corporation
County of Campbell
County of Chatham
County of Clallam
County of Clark
County of Cook
County of Dona Ana
County of Fairfax
County of Gwinnett
County of Johnson
County of Lake
County of Lewis
County of Orange
County of Palm Beach
County of Pinellas
County of Polk
County of Salt Lake
County of San Juan
County of Teton
County of Wake
County of Washoe
County of Weber
Coventry Health Care, Inc.
Cowles Publishing Company
Cox Communications
Cracker Barrel Old Country Store, Inc.
Crane Composites, Inc.
Crawford Supply Group
Credit Union of Ohio
CREOKS Behavioral Health Services
Crescent Healthcare, Inc.
Critical Mass
Crowe Horwath LLP
Crum & Forster
CSM Bakery Products
Cumberland Gulf Group of Companies
Cuyahoga Community College
CWS Capital Partners LLC
Dako North America
Dakota Growers Pasta Company
Dakota State University
Dallas Fort Worth International Airport
Damon G. Douglas Company
Darden Restaurants, Inc.
Dartmouth College
Davidson Companies
DaVita, Inc.
Day & Zimmermann
Day & Zimmermann
Hawthorne Corp.
DB Schenker
Decker Coal
Deere & Company
Defender Direct
Defense Intelligence Agency
Del Monte Foods Company
DeLaval Inc.
Delnor-Community Hospital
Deloitte & Touche, LLP
Deloitte Development LLC
Delta Dental of Oklahoma
Deluxe Laboratories, Inc.
Denbury Resources Inc.
Denison Industries
DENSO Manufacturing
Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation
Dermpath Diagnostics
Des Moines University
Deseret Mutual Benefits Administrators
Detroit Medical Center
Deutsch Industrial US
Developmental Disability Resource Center
DFA of California
Dialysis Clinic Inc.
Diamond Wire Materials Technology
Dignity Health
Direct General Corporation
Disabled American Veterans
Discover Financial Services
Diversity Training Group
Dixie Regional Medical Center
DLA Piper, Rudnick, Gray, Cary
Doe Run Company
Dollar General Corporation
Dominion Resources
Domtar Paper Company, LLC
Donahoe Risk Management
Doosan Infracore International Inc.
Dow Corning Corporation
Dowden Health Media
Doyon Ltd.
Doyon Remote Facilites & Services, LLC
Drummond Company Inc.
DSW Inc.
Ducommun AeroStructures, Inc.
Duke Endowment
Duke Energy Corporation
Duke University
Dunham & Associates Investment Council, Inc.
Duro Bag
DVA Federal Credit Union
Dyno Nobel Inc.
E2E Resources, Inc.
EADS North America
East Texas CareTeam, Inc.
Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians
Eastman Chemical Company
Eaton Corp.
Eaton Vance Management, Inc.
eBay Inc.
Eberline Services Hanford, Inc.
EchoStar Technologies L.L.C.
Eckart America
Eclipsys Corporation
Edgerton & Weaver, LLP
Edison Mission
Edison Mission Operations & Maintenance
Education Management Corporation
Education Services Foundation
Educational Employees Credit Union
Edward Hospital & Health Services
Edwards & Associates, Inc.
Edwards Companies
Edwards Lifesciences Corporation
eHarmony.com, Inc.
Election Systems & Software
EMC Corporation
EMD Millipore
Emerald Queen Hotel & Casinos
Empire Today, LLC
EMW Energy Northwest
Epson America, Inc.
Equity Office Properties Trust
Erickson Retirement Communities
Erlanger Health System
Ernst & Young, LLP
ESPN Essential Power, LLC
Estee Lauder Companies
Evergreen Packaging
Evergreen State College
Evonik Corporation
Expro Americas Inc.
Extra Space Storage

Fagen Friedman & Fulfrost LLC
Fairbanks Native Association
Fairmount Long Term Care/PNH
Faith Farm Ministries
Family First Federal Credit Union
Famous Recipe Operations Inc.
Farm Credit Bank of Texas
Farm Credit Services of Mid-America
Feather River Hospital
Federal Credit Union
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
Federal Express
Federal Home Loan Bank of Indianapolis
Federal Reserve Bank, Atlanta
Federal Reserve Bank, Boston
Federal Reserve Bank, Dallas
Federal Reserve Bank, New Yor
k Federal Reserve Bank, San Francisco
Federal Reserve Board
Federal-Mogul Corporation
Federated Mutual Insurance Co.
FedEx Express
Fedex Office & Print Services, Inc.
FedEx Services
Fibre Federal Credit Union
Fidelity Bank
Fifth Third Bank
Firelands Regional Medical Center
First Data Corporation
First Federal Savings & Loan
First Financial Corporation
First Midwest Bank
First Republic Bank
First Solar, Inc.
Fiserv, Inc.
Fisher Communications, Inc.
Fisher-Price Inc.
Five Star Credit Union
Flathead Electric Cooperative
Flint Hills Resources
Florida Power & Light
Florida State University
Fluor Corporation
FMC Technologies, Inc.
Follett Corporation
Forest Laboratories Inc.
Forest Lawn Memorial-Parks & Mortuaries
FosterThomas, Inc.
Foundation Surgery Affiliates
Franz Family Bakeries
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold
Friendly Ice Cream Corporation
Frito-Lay, Inc.
FrontRange Solutions Inc.
Frost Bank FTI Consulting, Inc.
G4S Integrated Services, Inc.
G4S Secure Solutions (USA), Inc.
GAF Corporation
Garden of Life
Gartner, Inc.
Gatan, Inc.
Gaylord Entertainment
Gaylord Opryland Resort & Convention
GEICO Corporation
General Atomics Aeronautical Systems
General Dynamics General
Dynamics Advanced Information Systems
General Dynamics C4 Systems
General Dynamics Information Technology
General Dynamics SATCOM Technologies
General Electric
General Growth Properties
General Mills, Inc.
General Moly, Inc.
General Motors Corporation
Genesis HealthCare Systems
George Mason University
Georgetown University Hospital
Georgia Power Co.
Georgia Southern University
Georgia State University
Gerdau AmeriSteel Corporation
Giant Food Stores Inc.
Gila River Gaming Enterprises, Inc.
Gilead Sciences, Inc.
Giles Electric Company, Inc.
Gonzaga University

Goodrich Aerostructures Group
Goodrich Corporation
Grace Pacific Corporation
Grant Thornton LLP
Graphic Packaging International, Inc.
Graybar Services, Inc.
Greater Hudson Bank
Greater Phoenix Economic Council
Great-West Life & Annuity Insurance Co.
Greystar Real Estate Partners
Grosvenor Capital Management, LP
Group Voyagers, Inc.
Guaranteed Rate, Inc.
Guidance Software, Inc.
Guilford County Schools
Gulfstream Aerospace Corp.
Gypsum North America
H & R Block Inc.
H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute
H.E.B. Grocery Company
Hahnemann University Hospital
Hallmark Capital Group, LLC
Hannaford Bros. Co.
Harley-Davidson Motor Company
Harrah's Cherokee Casino
Harris N.A. Hawkeye Valley Area Agency on Aging
Hayes Lemmerz International
HCA Inc.
HCA Shared Services
HCC Insurance Holdings
Health Alliance
Health Management Resources Corp.
Health Management Systems
Health Net, Inc.
Hecla Mining Company
Helzberg Diamonds
Hemlock Semiconductor Group
Hendrickson USA, L.L.C.
Henkel Corporation
Henry M. Jackson Foundation
Heraeus Inc.
Herman Miller, Inc.

Highmark, Inc.
Hillenbrand Industries
Hilton Hotels Corporation
Hinds Hospice
HiT Entertainment
Hitachi America Ltd.
Hitachi Automotive Systems Americas, Inc.
Hitachi Consulting Corporation
HM Insurance Group
HNTB Holland America Line
Home Box Office
Home Depot, Inc.
Honda R&D Americas, Inc.
Honeywell Safety Products
Hoosier Park Racing & Casino
Hornbeck Offshore Services, Inc.
Hotel Whitcomb
Howard University
HR Textron, Inc.
HSB Group, Inc.
HSBC - North America
HSC Pediatric Center
Humana Inc.
Hunter Fan Co.
Huntington Hospital
Huntington Ingalls Industries, Inc.
Hunton & Williams
Hurley Medical Center
Huttig Building Products
Hyundai Motor America
Ibis Golf & Country Club
ICF International, Inc.
Idaho National Engineering & Environmental Laboratory
Idaho Power Company
Idahoan Foods
IDEX Corporation
IDEXX Laboratories Inc.
iGATE Americas Inc.
Illinois Action for Children
IMA Financial Group
Imperial Sugar Company
Indiana Insurance Company
Indiana State University
Indianapolis Power & Light Company
Inergy Automotive Systems USA
Infinity Pharmaceuticals
Ingersoll-Rand Company
Inglis Foundation
Ingram Industries Inc.
Ingram Micro
Inland Empire Hospital Services Association
Innophos Instinet, LLC
Institute of Public Administration, Saudi Arabia
Integra Lifesciences Holding Corp.
Integrated DNA Technologies, Inc.
Intel Corporation
Intelsat, Ltd.
InterContinental Hotels Group
Intermountain Healthcare
Intermountain Power Service Corp. International Paper
International Transportation Services
Ion Media Networks
Iron Mountain, Inc.
Irving Oil Limited
Isle of Capri Casinos Inc.
J. Craig Venter Institute
J.R. Simplot Company
Jabil Circuit, Inc.
Jackson National Life Insurance Co.
Jacobs Technology Inc.
Janssen Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical
JasperSoft Corporation
Jefferson Regional Medical Center
JM Eagle, Inc.
JM Family Enterprises
Jo-Ann Fabric & Craft Stores
John Crane Inc.
John Deere Company
John Deere Landscapes
John Hancock Financial Services, Inc.
John Hancock Life Insurance
John Zink Company, LLC
Johns Hopkins Medicine
Johns Hopkins University
Johnson & Johnson
Johnson Controls Inc.
Jones Lang LaSalle Incorporated
Jorge Scientific Corporation
Jos. A. Bank Clothiers, Inc.
JPMorgan Chase & Co.
JPMorgan Chase Bank, NA JT3 LLC
Juneau Alliance for Mental Health, Inc.
Kadant Black Clawson
Kaiser Permanente
Kaneka North America LLC
Katz, Teller, Brant & Hild
Kaweah Delta Health Care District
Kellogg Company
Kelly Services
Kennametal Inc.
Kennewick General Hospital
Kensington Gold Mine
Kent Intermediate School District
Kentucky Employers' Mutual Insurance
Ketchikan Indian Community
Kiewit Mining Group
Kimberly-Clark Corporation
Kinder Morgan
King Soopers Inc.
Klein Tools, Inc.
Kleinfelder, Inc.
Knowledge Learning Corporation
Knowledge Universe
Koch Business Solutions
Koch Fertilizer, LLC
Koch Heat Transfer Company, LP
Koch Industries, Inc.
Koch Mineral Services LLC
Koch Pipeline Company LP
Kodiak Area Native Association
Komatsu America Corporation
Konecranes, Inc.
Koppers Inc.
Kraft Foods Inc.
Kroenke Sports Enterprises
Kroger Company
Kroger Vandervoort Dairy
Kyocera Mita South Carolina, Inc. L-3 Communications
L-3 Vertex Aerospace
LabOne, Inc.
Lackland Air Force Base
Laclede Gas Company
Lafarge Corporation
Lakeside Foods, Inc.
Lambeth House
Lancaster General Health
Lancer Corporation
LandAmerica Financial Group, Inc.
Lane Bryant
Las Vegas Valley Water District
Leader Tech, Inc.
Lego Systems, Inc.
Lehigh Hanson, Inc.
Lehigh Southwest Cement Co.
LG Constructors
Liberty Bank
Liberty Media Corporation
Liberty Mutual Group, Inc.
Lifetime Healthcare Companies
Lifeway Christian Resources
Limited Brands
Lincoln Financial Media
Little Blue Valley Sewer District
LM Glasfiber
LM Wind Power Blades Inc.
Lockheed Federal Credit Union
Lockheed Martin Corporation
Lockheed Martin Missiles & Fire Control
LogistiCare Solutions, LLC
Loomis Los Alamos National Laboratory
Los Angeles County Metro Transit Authority Louisiana Tech University
Lowe's Companies, Inc.
Lowry Hill
Loyola College in Maryland
Loyola University Maryland
LVMH Fashion Group America
LYNX M. Davis & Sons
Mack Energy Company
Magic Aire
Maniilaq Association
Mannington Commercial
Mantech International
Marathon Oil Corporation
Marine Corps Community Services
Market Strategies International
Marriott International, Inc.
Mars, Incorporated
Mary E. Bivins Foundation
Masco Corporation
Masonite Corporation
Massimo Zanetti Beverage USA
MassMutual Financial Group
Mattel, Inc.
Mayo Clinic, Rochester
Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale
McCain Foods USA, Inc.
McConnell Valdes LLC
McDonough Bolyard Peck, Inc.
McKee Foods Corporation
McKesson Corporation
McLane Company, Inc.
McNeil Technologies
MDU Resources Group, Inc.
Meadowbrook Insurance Group
Medrad, Inc.
MedStar Health
Mercedes-Benz USA, LLC
Merchant Link, LLC
Mericle Commercial Real Estate
Meritage Homes
Merrill Lynch
Methodist Healthcare
Methodist Hospital of Southern California
Methodist LeBonheur Healthcare
Metropolitan Life Insurance Co (Metlife)
Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County
Michelman, Inc.
Michigan Technological University
Micrel, Incorporated
Microsoft Corporation
Mid-Atlantic Permanente Medical Group
Midway Hotel Center
Midwest Bank & Trust
Midwestern University
Mille Lacs Band Corporate Commission
MillerCoors LLC
Minitab Inc.
Mission Regional
Medical Center
Mission Support Alliance
Mitsubishi Electric/Electronics USA
MKB Technology
MMM Healthcare Inc.
MOBIS Mohegan Sun Casino
Molex Incorporated
Moneytree, Inc.
Monitor Liability
Managers, LLC
Monsanto Company
Montana State University
Montgomery County Hospital District
Morehead State University
Morgan Borszcz Consulting
Morrison & Foerster, LLP
Mortan Plant
Mease Healthcare
Mortgage Network, Inc.
Motor Coach Industries International Inc.
MRW Group
MullinTBG, a Prudential Financial Company
Municipality of Anchorage

Murphy Oil Corporation
Muscatine Power & Water
Mutual of Omaha
NANA Management Services
NANA/Colt Engineeering
Nathan Adelson Hospice
National Association of Insurance Commissioners
National Dentex Corporation
National Education Association
National Electrical Contractors Association
National Gypsum Company
National Institute of Standards & Technology
National Jewish Health
National Marine Manufacturers Association
National Retail Systems
National Security Technologies
Nationwide Insurance
Native Americans for Community Action
Navajo Nation
Naval Research Laboratory
Navigators Group, Inc.
Navigators Management Company
Navy Federal Credit Union
NBC Universal, Inc.
Neighborhood House Association
Nemours Foundation
Nestle Purina PetCare
Nestle USA NetJets Inc.
Nevada State Bank
New York State Nurses Association
New York State United Teachers
Newmont Mining Corporation
Nigeria LNG Limited
NIKE, Inc.
NMB (USA), Inc.
Noble Group
Nordstrom, Inc.
North American Energy Services
North American Stainless
North East Utilities Service Co.
North Middlesex Regional School District
NorthBay Healthcare System
Northeast Utilities
Northern Maine Medical Center
Northern Panhandle Head Start Inc.
Northrop Grumman
Northstar Behavioral Health Services
Northwestern Energy Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Co.
Nova Southeastern University
Novartis, Alcon Division
Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc.
Nutramax Laboratories, Inc.
NXStage Medical Inc.
Oberto Sausage Company
Oberweis Dairy Inc.
Ocean Properties, Limited
OfficeMax, Inc.
OGE Energy Corporation
Ogletree Deakins Nash Smoak & Stewart
O'Hare Airport Transit Systems, Inc.
Ohio State University
Ohio Valley Community Credit Union
Oklahoma Gas & Electric
Old Line Bank Oldcastle APG West, Inc.
Olin Corporation
Omidyar Network
Omni Hotels
On Command Corporation
Onyx Acceptance Corporation
OPEIU Healthcare
Operating Engineers Local 825
OPW Fueling Components

Orange County Transportation Authority
Orbital Sciences Corporation
Oreck Corporation
Oregon Health & Science University
Orlando Health
Orlando Utilities Commission
Owens Corning
P & H MinePro
Pacific Life Insurance Co.
Pacific Power
Packaging Corporation of America
Panda Restaurant Group, Inc.
Panera Bread
Papa Murphy's International, Inc.
Parallon Business Solutions, LLC
PAREXEL International Corporation

Park Water Company
Parker Hannifin Corporation
Parkland Health & Hospital System
Partners Community HealthCare
Partners HealthCare System
Patton Boggs, LLP
Payless ShoeSource, Inc.
PC Connection, Inc.
Pearson, Inc.
Pechanga Resort & Casino
Pend Orielle Mine
Penn National Gaming Inc.
Pennsylvania State University
Pepco Holdings, Inc.
Perkins Coie, LLP
Perot Systems Corporation
Perspectives Corporation
Petrobras America, Inc. Pfizer Inc.
PGT Industries Pharmaceutical
Product Development (PPD)
Philadelphia Gas Works
Pike Electric, Inc.
PJM Interconnection, LLC
Plainfield Municipal Utilities Authority
Plews & Edelmann
Plexus Corp.
Plow & Hearth
PNM Resources, Inc.
Polish & Slavic Federal Credit Union
PolyOne Corporation
Pooling Resources, Inc.
Port of Seattle
Portland Clinic
Portland Community College
Portland General Electric Co.
Portland State University
Ports America
Potawatomi Bingo Casino
Power House Resources International, Inc
Power-One, Inc.
Prairie Knights Casino
Praxair, Inc.
Precision Drilling Oilfield Services
Premera Blue Cross
Premier, Inc.
Preti Flaherty Beliveau
Pachios & Haley LLP
PreVisor PRGX Global, Inc.
Priceline.com Inc.
Prince George's County Public Schools
Princess Cruises
Printing House, Ltd.
PRO Sports Club
Procter & Gamble
Prosteel Proteus, Inc.
Provision Ministry Group
Prudential Financial, Inc.
Prudential Insurance Company of America Prudential Retirement
PSCU Financial Services
PSEG Incorporated
Public Service Company of New Hampshire Purdue Research Foundation
Purdue University
PurEnergy L.L.C.
QinetiQ North America Operations LLC
Quadra FNX Mining Ltd.
Quanex Building Products Corporation
Quartz Corporation
Quest Diagnostics
Questar Corporation
Quintiles Transnational Corp.
QVC Network
R.L. Polk & Co.
Radia Medical Imaging
Radian Group Inc.
Radiation Therapy Services, Inc.
Ralcorp Holdings, Inc.
Ralph Lauren Corporation
Raymond James & Associates, Inc.
Raytheon Company
RBS Group Reality Check Systems
Red Bull North America Inc.
Redwood Credit Union
Regal Beloit Corporation
Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Regional Transportation District
Reinhart Food Service
Renal Ventures Management, LLC
RES-Americas, Inc.
Restaurants Unlimited
Rexnord Corporation
Reyes Holdings LLC
Richmond Redevelopment & Housing Authority
Rio Tinto Risk Strategies Company
River Valley Bank Road & Rail Services, Inc
. Robert Bosch Corporation
Robins, Kaplan, Miller & Ciresi, LLP
Roche Molecular Diagnostics
Rochester Laborers' Welfare Fund
Rockland Federal Credit Union
Rockwell Collins, Inc.
Rome Research Corporation
Roxcomp Community Health Center
Royal Credit Union
Royal Gold, Inc.
RT Communications, Inc.
Ruiz Foods Russell Pacific LLC
Safe Credit Union
SAFECO Corporation
Safety-Kleen Systems, Inc.
Salt River Materials Group
Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community
Salt River Project
Salvation Army
Samaritan's Purse
Samson Investment Company
San Francisco Public Utilities Commission
Sandia National Laboratories
Santa Margarita Water District
Sargent & Lundy, LLC
Saudi Telecom Company
Save-A-Lot Food Stores, Inc.

Scholastic Book Fairs
Schreiber Foods, Inc.
Scottsdale Healthcare Corporation
Scripps Health
Seattle Public Library
Seattle Radiologists
Sebris Busto James
Securities & Exchange Commission Nigeria
Sedgwick Claims Management
SEGA of America, Inc.
SEIU Local 1000
Selective HR Solutions
Semtech Corporation
Sentry Insurance Company
ServiceMaster Company
SES Engineering
Shaw Industries Group, Inc.
Sheffield Plastics
Sheridan Memorial Hospital
Sherman Health
Shire Pharmaceuticals
Shook Hardy & Bacon
Shurtape Technologies, LLC
Siemens Corporation
Siemens Energy & Automation
Siemens Energy Service
Siemens Power Generation
Signature Flight Support
Simon Property Group, Inc.
Sinclair Oil Corporation
Sky Bank
Smith & Nephew, Inc.
Smithfield Foods, Inc.
Smithfield Packing Co., Inc.
SNC-Lavalin Constructors, Inc.
Snohomish County PUD 1
SOC Nevada, LLC
Social Security Administration
Society of Counsel Representing Accused Persons
Society of Manufacturing Engineers
Sodexo Inc.
Sonoco Products Company
South Bend Medical Foundation
South Florida Water Management District
South Peninsula Hospital, Inc.
Southboro Medical Group
SouthEast Alaska Regional Health Consortium
Southeast Toyota Distributors, LLC
Southeastern Freight Lines, Inc.
Southern California Edison Company
Southern Company Services
Southern Illinois University
Southern Ute Indian Tribe
Southwest Gas Corporation
Southwest Power Pool
Southwestern Energy Company
Space Coast Credit Union
Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX)
Space Telescope
Science Institute
Specialty Laboratories
Spectra Energy
Spirit Mountain Gaming, Inc.
Sports Authority
Sprint Corporation
SRA International
St. Francis Hospital
St. John's Regional Medical Center
St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
St. Jude Medical
St. Louis Convention & Visitors Commission
St. Louis Science Center
St. Margaret's Health
St. Mary Medical Center
St. Regis Mohawk Tribe
Starz Entertainment, LLC
Starz Media, LLC
State Farm Insurance Companies
State of Alaska
State of Connecticut
State of Georgia
State of Maryland
State of Montana
State of New Mexico
State of North Dakota
State of South Dakota
State of Utah
State of West Virginia
Stew Leonard's
Stillwater Mining Company

StoneRiver, Inc.
Stony Brook University
Stormont-Vail HealthCare
STP Nuclear Operating Company
Stryker Corporation
Sun Life Financial
Sun National Bank
Sun Orchard
Sun Products Corporation
Suncoast Hotel & Casino
Sunpower, Inc.
Sunshine Makers, Inc.
SunTrust Banks, Inc.
Superior Essex
Supermetal Structures
Swarovski Jewelry U.S. Ltd.
Swarthmore College
Swedish Match North America, Inc.
Swinerton Incorporated
Symcor, Inc.
Symetra Financial
Syngenta Crop Protection, Inc.
Synthes (USA)
Sypris Solutions
Syracuse University
SYSCO Corporation
T. Rowe Price Group, Inc.
Talbots, Inc.
Tate & Lyle North America, Inc.
Tatitlek Corporation
Taylor English Duma LLP
TCF Financial
TD Bank Financial
TE Connectivity Tech Data Corporation
Teck Cominco American
TEES Personnel Services
Telerx Marketing, Inc.
TeleTech Holdings, Inc.
Tenneco, Inc.
Tennessee Valley Federal Credit Union
Tensar Corp
Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis
Tesoro Refining & Marketing Co.
TESSCO Technologies
Texas A & M University
Texas Adjutant General's Department/Texas Military Forces
Texas Forest Service
Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc.
Thk Rhythm North America Co., Ltd.
Thrivent Financial for Lutherans
TIB/The Independent BankersBank
TIC-The Industrial Company Wyoming
Time Warner Cable
TJX Companies, Inc.
T-Mobile USA, Inc.
Torqued-Up Energy Services
Torrance Community Credit Union
Totem Ocean
Trailer Express
Toyota Engineering & Manufacturing NA
Toyota Material Handling USA
Toyota Motor Sales, USA, Inc.
Toys 'R' Us, Inc.
Tractor Supply Company
Travelers Insurance Co.
Trident Refit Facility
Trinidad Drilling, LP
Triumph Aerostructures Vought Aircraft Division
TriWest Healthcare Alliance
Tropicana Products, Inc.
TRW Automotive
Tufts Associated Health Plans, Inc.
Tulalip Tribes
Tulsa Community College
Tyler Independent School District
Tyson Foods, Inc.
US Army
US Customs & Border Protection
US Department of Commerce
US Department of Energy
US Department of Health & Human Services
US Department of Interior
US Department of State
US Department of Treasury
US Department of Veterans Affairs
US Fish & Wildlife Service
US House of Representatives
US Marine Corps
UBS Global Asset Management
UBS Investment Bank
UDR, Inc.
UMB Financial Corporation
Under Armour, Inc.
Union Hospital, Inc.
Union Telephone Company
UniSea, Inc.
United Nations Federal Credit Union
United Online, Inc.
United Parcel Service (UPS)
United States Bakery
United States Steel Corporation
Universal Orlando
University Corporation for Atmospheric Research
University Health Associates
University HealthSystem Consortium
University Hospitals University of Akron University of Alaska University of Albany, SUNY
University of California, San Diego
University of Central Missouri
University of Cincinnati
University of Delaware
University of Guam
University of Hartford
University of Kansas
University of Massachusetts at Lowell
University of Miami
University of North Texas
University of North Texas Health Science Center
University of Oregon
University of Richmond
University of Southern California
University of St. Thomas
University of Washington
University of Wyoming
UNUMProvident Corporation
Urban Ministries
URS Corporation
USAA Real Estate Company
Utah State University
V & M Star
V & M USA Corporation
Valencia College
Valero Energy Corporation
Valley Federal Credit Union
Valley TeleCom Group
Vallourec North America
VanCott, Bagley, Cornwall & McCarthy
Vangent, Inc., a General Dynamics Company
Vanguard Group, Inc.
Varco International, Inc.
Varnum LLP
Vectren Corporation
Veolia Environmental Solutions
Veridian Credit Union
Verizon Wireless, Inc.
VF Corporation
VHA Inc.
Viejas Enterprises
Vinmar International, Ltd.
Virginia Credit Union
Virginia Hospital Center
Visa International
Vision Net, Inc.
VMware, Inc.
Volvo Construction Equipment, NA
W & W Steel, LLC
Wabash National Corporation
Wacker Polysilicon North America
WakeMed Health & Hospitals
Warner Bros.
Warner Norcross & Judd LLP
Washington Closure Hanford, Inc.
Washington Real Estate Investment Trust
Washington River Protection Solutions
Washington Savannah River Co.
Washington State Bar Association
Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine
Waste Management, Inc.
WAWA, Inc.
WCM Industries, Inc.
WebVisible, Inc.
Wegmans Food Markets
WellPoint Inc.
Wells Enterprises, Inc.
Wells Fargo
Wentworth Institute of Technology
Wesleyan University
West Virginia University Hospitals
West Virginia University Medical Corp.
Westar Energy, Inc.
Western & Southern Financial Group
Western & Southern Life Insurance Co.
Western Digital Corporation
Western Energy Company
Western Mesquite Mines Inc.
Western Michigan University
Western Refining Company
Western Union Weyerhaeuser
Wharton-Smith, Inc.
White Earth Tribal & Community College
William H. Harvey
Williams Companies, Inc.
Windstream Communications
Woodgrain Millwork, Inc.
Woods Equipment Company
Workrite Uniform Company, Inc.
World Omni Financial Corp.
World Vision International
Worthington Industries, Inc.
WPX Energy
Wright Medical
WSI Wyndham Vacation Ownership
Xcel Energy
XO Communications
Yamaha Corporation of America Young Life
Zadhry Industrial Inc.
Zep Inc.
Zippo Manufacturing
Zondervan Zotos International, Inc.
Zurich North America

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United States labor law is a heterogeneous collection of state and federal laws. Federal law not only sets the standards that govern workers' rights to organize in the private sector, but also overrides most state and local laws that attempt to regulate this area. Federal law also provides more limited rights for employees of the federal government. These federal laws do not apply to employees of state and local governments, agricultural workers or domestic employees; any statutory protections those workers have derived from state law.

The pattern is even more mixed in the area of wages and working conditions. Federal law establishes minimum wages and overtime rights for most workers in the private and public sectors; state and local laws may provide more expansive rights. Similarly, federal law provides minimum workplace safety standards, but allows the states to take over those responsibilities and to provide more stringent standards.

Finally, both federal and state laws protect workers from employment discrimination. In most areas these two bodies of law overlap; as an example, federal law permits states to enact their own statutes barring discrimination on the basis of race, gender, religion, national origin and age, so long as the state law does not provide less protections than federal law would. Federal law, on the other hand, preempts most state statutes that would bar employers from discriminating against employees to prevent them from obtaining pensions or other benefits or retaliating against them for asserting those rights.

The United States Congress has not ratified the International Labour Organization Convention on the Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organize Convention, 1948 or the Right to Organize and Collective Bargaining Convention, 1949.


Employment law in the US has traditionally been governed by the common law rule of "at-will employment," meaning that an employment relationship could be terminated by either party at any time without a reason. This is still true today in most states. However, starting in 1941, a series of laws prohibited certain discriminatory firings. That is, in most states, absent an express contractual provision to the contrary, an employer can still fire an employee for no or any reason, as long as it isn't an illegal reason (which includes a violation of public policy).

In 1941, Executive Order 8802 (or the Fair Employment Act) became the first law to prohibit racial discrimination, although it only applied to the national defense industry. Later laws include Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (and amendments), Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, and numerous state laws with additional protections. The Fair Labor Standards Act regulates minimum wages and overtime pay for certain employees who work more than 40 hours in a work week.

While working an employee must work a minimum of two hours in a day. Cases of employment discrimination in the United States are most often subject to the jurisdiction of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, the federal commission responsible for the enforcement of the anti-discrimination laws. Once a case has been filed with the EEOC or similar state agencies with concurrent jurisdiction, employees have a right to remove the case to the courts with the permission of the agency, or in some instances, after the expiration of a set time period. Employment law cases are heard in state or federal courts, depending upon the issue, the size of the employer (the Civil Rights Act of 1964, for example, applies only to employers with 15 or more employees), and the litigation strategy of the plaintiff.

Regulation of unions and organizing

Contrary to popular intent, the Sherman Antitrust Act (1890) led to prosecution of unions as illegal combinations, but Section 6 of the Clayton Antitrust Act (1914) ended this practice by stipulating that unions shall not be "construed to be illegal combinations or conspiracies in restraint of trade, under the antitrust laws."

The National Labor Relations Act (NLRA, the "Wagner Act") gives private sector workers the right to choose whether they wish to be represented by a union and establishes the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) to hold elections for that purpose. As originally enacted in 1935, the NLRA makes it illegal for employers to discriminate against workers because of their union membership or retaliate against them for engaging in organizing campaigns or other "concerted activities", to form "company unions", or to refuse to engage in collective bargaining with the union that represents their employees.

The Taft-Hartley Act (also the "Labor-Management Relations Act"), passed in 1947, loosened some of the restrictions on employers, changed NLRB election procedures, and added a number of new limitations on unions. The Act, among other things, prohibits jurisdictional strikes and secondary boycotts by unions, and authorizes individual states to pass "right-to-work laws", regulates pension and other benefit plans established by unions and provides that federal courts have jurisdiction to enforce collective bargaining agreements.

The United States Congress subsequently tightened those restrictions on unions in the Labor Management Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1959, which also regulates the internal affairs of all private sector unions, providing for minimum standards for unions' internal disciplinary proceedings, federal oversight for unions' elections of their own officers, and fiduciary standards for union officers' use of union funds. Congress has since expanded the NLRB's jurisdiction to health care institutions, with unique rules governing organizing and strikes against those employers.

The NLRA does not, on the other hand, cover governmental employees, with the exception of employees of the United States Postal Service, a quasi-public entity. The Federal Labor Relations Act provides for much more limited rights for employees of the federal government; Congress has, moreover, excluded a number of these workers in the United States Department of Homeland Security and elsewhere from even these limited protections.In order to keep up with the most recent versions to be in compliance with federal labor law, employees could get more detailed information by reading the federal labor law poster , which is required to be posted in the company.

Federal law does not provide employees of state and local governments with the right to organize or engage in union activities, except to the extent that the United States Constitution protects their rights to freedom of speech and freedom of association. The Constitution provides even less protection for governmental employees' right to engage in collective bargaining: while it bars public employers from retaliating against employees for forming a union, it does not require those employers to recognize that union, much less bargain with it.

Most states provide public employees with limited statutory protections; a few permit public employees to strike in support of their demands in some circumstances. Some states, however, particularly in the South, make it illegal for a governmental entity to enter into a collective bargaining agreement with a union.

The NLRA does not cover agricultural or domestic employees. A few states have enacted labor laws similar to the NLRA covering farm workers.

Finally, the NLRA does not cover employees in the railroad and airline industries. Those workers are covered by the Railway Labor Act, first passed in 1926, then amended in 1936 to cover airline employees. The RLA creates a wholly different structure for resolving labor disputes, requiring bargaining under indirect governmental supervision and permitting strikes only in limited circumstances.

The Norris-LaGuardia Act of 1932 outlawed the issuance of injunctions in labor disputes by federal courts. While the Act does not prevent state courts from issuing injunctions, it ended what some observers called "government by injunction", in which the federal courts used injunctions to prevent unions from striking, organizing and, in some cases, even talking to workers or entering certain parts of a state. Roughly half the states have enacted their own version of the Norris-LaGuardia Act.

For the most part the NLRA and RLA displace state laws that attempt to regulate the right to organize, to strike and to engage in collective bargaining. The NLRB has exclusive jurisdiction to determine whether an employer has engaged in an unfair labor practice and to decide what remedies should be provided. States and local governments can, on the other hand, impose requirements when acting as market participants, such as requiring that all contractors sign a project labor agreement to avoid strikes when building a public works project, that they could not if they were attempting to regulate those employers' labor relations directly.

Regulation of wages, benefits and working conditions

The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (FLSA) establishes minimum wage and overtime rights for most private sector workers, with a number of exemptions and exceptions. Congress amended the Act in 1974 to cover governmental employees, leading to a series of United States Supreme Court decisions in which the Court first held that the law was unconstitutional, then reversed itself to permit the FLSA to cover governmental employees.

The FLSA does not preempt state and local governments from providing greater protections under their own laws. A number of states have enacted higher minimum wages and extended their laws to cover workers who are excluded under the FLSA or to provide rights that federal law ignores.

Local governments have also adopted a number of "living wage" laws that require those employers that contract with them to pay higher minimum wages and benefits to their employees. The federal government, along with many state governments, likewise require employers to pay the prevailing wage, which typically reflects the standards established by unions' collective bargaining agreements in the area, to workers on public works projects.

The Employee Retirement Income Security Act establishes standards for the funding and operation of pension and health care plans provided by employers to their employees. The ERISA preempts most state legislation that attempts to regulate how such plans are administered and, to a great extent, what types of health care coverage they provide. ERISA also preempts state law claims that an employer discriminated against employees in order to prevent them from obtaining the benefits they would have earned otherwise or to retaliate against them for asserting their rights.

The Family and Medical Leave Act, passed in 1993, requires employers to provide workers with twelve weeks of unpaid medical leave and continuing medical benefit coverage in order to attend to certain medical conditions of close relatives or themselves. Many states have comparable statutory provisions; some states have offered greater protections.

The Occupational Safety and Health Act, signed into law in 1970 by President Richard Nixon, creates specific standards for workplace safety. The Act has spawned years of litigation by industry groups that have challenged the standards limiting the amount of permitted exposure to chemicals such as benzene. The Act also provides for protection for "whistleblowers" who complain to governmental authorities about unsafe conditions while allowing workers the right to refuse to work under unsafe conditions in certain circumstances. The Act allows states to take over the administration of OSHA in their jurisdictions, so long as they adopt state laws at least as protective of workers' rights as under federal law. More than half of the states have done so.

Employment discrimination and whistleblowers

While Congress passed laws barring racial discrimination by private employers in 1866 with the Civil Rights Act of 1866, the Supreme Court's decision in the Civil Rights Cases made that Act a dead letter for nearly a century. Congress adopted limited prohibitions against racial discrimination by defense contractors during World War II, but no general prohibition against employment discrimination until it passed Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which bars employment discrimination on the basis of race, gender, national origin and religion.

Congress amended that Act in 1972 to cover governmental employers, in 1981 to outlaw employment discrimination on the basis of pregnancy, and again in the Civil Rights Act of 1991 to overturn a number of decisions by the Supreme Court limiting employees' rights.

Congress has also protected the rights of workers over forty years of age in the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, passed in 1967, and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 also provides narrow prohibitions against certain types of employment discrimination based on immigration status.

Title VII encourages states to pass their own anti-discrimination laws; most states outside the South have done so. A number of states and local governments have also enacted statutes that expand on the rights that federal law offers, either by offering greater remedies or broader protections, or have legislated in areas that federal law does not cover, such as discrimination based on sexual orientation or marital status.

The states and the federal government have also enacted a welter of laws to protect whistleblowers; these statutes vary widely in what conduct is protected, what procedures must be followed to enforce the law and what remedies are provided. Public sector employees are also protected from retaliation by their employers for some forms of whistleblowing activities by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution.

Job security

While most state and federal laws start from the presumption that workers who are not covered by a collective bargaining agreement or an individual employment agreement are "at will" employees who can be fired without notice and for no stated reason, state and federal laws prohibiting discrimination or protecting the right to organize or engage in whistleblowing activities modify that rule by providing that discharge or other forms of discrimination are illegal if undertaken on grounds specifically prohibited by law.

In addition, a number of states have modified the general rule that employment is at will by holding that employees may, under that state's common law, have implied contract rights to fair treatment by their employers. US private-sector employees thus do not have the indefinite contracts (similar to US academic tenure) traditionally common in many European countries, Canada and New Zealand.

Public employees in both federal and state government are also typically covered by civil service systems that protect them from unjust discharge. Public employees who have enough rights against unjustified discharge by their employers may also acquire a property right in their jobs, which entitles them in turn to additional protections under the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

The Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act, better known by its acronym as the WARN Act, requires private sector employers to give sixty days' notice of large-scale layoffs and plant closures; it allows a number of exceptions for unforeseen emergencies and other cases. Several states have adopted more stringent requirements of their own.

Labor law in individual states

Right-to-work laws

The following 24 states are right-to-work states:

In addition, the territory of Guam also has right-to-work laws.

An employee's right-to-work is established under the state Constitution, not under legislative action.

Constitutional amendments

In 2010, the organization Save Our Secret Ballot pushed four states: Arizona, South Carolina, South Dakota, and Utah to pass constitutional amendments to ban Card check.


In 1959, California added the Division of Fair Employment Practices to the California Department of Industrial Relations. The Fair Employment and Housing Act of 1980 gave the division its own Department of Fair Employment and Housing, with the stated purpose of protecting citizens against harassment and employment discrimination on the basis of: age, ancestry, color, creed, denial of family and medical care leave, disability (including HIV/AIDS), marital status, medical condition, national origin, race, religion, sex, transgender and orientation. Sexual orientation was not specifically included in the original law but precedent was established based on case law. On October 9, 2011, California Governor Edmund G. "Jerry" Brown signed into law Assembly Bill No. 887 alters the meaning of gender for the purposes of discrimination laws that define sex as including gender so that California law now prohibits discrimination on the basis of gender identity and gender expression.

The state also has its own labor law covering agricultural workers, the California Agricultural Labor Relations Act.

See also


External links


Newport Beach, incorporated in 1906, is an affluent city in Orange County, California, 10 miles (16 km) south of downtown Santa Ana. The population was 85,287 at the 2010 census. Newport Beach is also home to Newport Harbor. Zipcodes of Newport Beach: 92657, 92658, 92659, 92660, 92661, 92662, 92663

The city's median family income and property values consistently place high in national rankings. The Daily Pilot, a newspaper published in the neighboring city of Costa Mesa but which serves the greater Newport-Mesa community, reported in 2010 that more than a quarter of households have an income greater than $200,000, and the median value for homes is approximately $1 million.


Dover and Pacific Coast Hwy Newport Beach CA

Newport Beach extends in elevation from sea level to the 1161 ft (354 m.) summit of Signal Peak in the San Joaquin Hills, but the official elevation is 25 feet (8 m) above sea level

The city is bordered on the west by Huntington Beach at the Santa Ana River; on the north by Costa Mesa, John Wayne Airport, the City of Irvine and UC Irvine; and on the east by Crystal Cove State Park.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 53.0 square miles (137 km2). 23.8 square miles (62 km2) of it is land and 29.2 square miles (76 km2) of it (55.07%) is water.

Areas of Newport Beach include Corona del Mar, Balboa Island, Balboa Peninsula (also known as Balboa), Newport Coast, San Joaquin Hills, and Santa Ana Heights, and West Newport.

Newport Harbor and Newport Bay

Newport Beach, California.
Linda Isle, Newport Beach, California

Newport Harbor is a semi-artificial harbor that was formed by dredging an estuary during the early 1900s. Several artificial islands were built, which are now covered with private homes: Newport Island, Balboa Island, Little Balboa Island, Collins Island, Bay Island, Harbor Island, Lido Isle and Linda Isle.

Newport Harbor once supported maritime industries such as boatbuilding, shipbuilding, and commercial fishing, but today it is used mostly for recreation. Its shores are occupied mostly by private homes and private docks. With approximately 9,000 boats, Newport Harbor is one of the largest recreational boat harbors on the U.S. west coast. It's a popular destination for all boating activities, including sailing, fishing, rowing, canoeing, kayaking, and paddleboarding.

Commercial maritime operations today include the Catalina Flyer ferry to Catalina Island, harbor tours, sport fishing and whale watching day trips and charters, and a few small commercial fishing boats.

Newport Bay is divided by the Pacific Coast Highway bridge, which is too low for most sailboats and very large boats to pass under. North of the bridge is referred to as Upper Newport Bay, or the Back Bay. South of the bridge is commonly called Lower Newport Bay, or Newport Harbor. However the Back Bay also has harbor facilities, especially the marina and launch ramp at The Dunes.

The north end of the Newport Harbor channels around Lido Island have a number of small business centers and were at one time used by the fishing fleets as its home. On the North East side of the channel, the Lido Marina Village now provides the local port to many "Newport Party Boats" as well as small merchants and local restaurants and hosts the area boat show each year as well as an Organic "Farmers Market" Sundays and in addition to port for the local Gondola Company.

In 1927 a home was built at the mouth of the entrance of Newport Harbor that came to be known as the China House of China Cove. The home was built using the traditional Chinese architecture. It was a landmark in the Newport Beach Harbor until it was demolished in the 1980s. Some of the original roof can been seen on a home located in the China Cove.

Upper Newport Bay is an estuary that was formed by a prehistoric flow of the Santa Ana River. Today it is fed by a small stream from San Diego Creek. Much of Upper Newport Bay is a protected natural area known as the Upper Newport Bay Ecological Reserve, established in 1975.

Newport Beach Back Bay from 1200 AGL


Newport Beach has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csb). Like many coastal cities in Los Angeles and Orange counties, Newport Beach exhibits weak temperature variation, both diurnally and seasonally, compared to inland cities even a few miles from the ocean. The Pacific Ocean greatly moderates Newport Beach's climate by warming winter temperatures and cooling summer temperatures.

Climate data for Newport Beach
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 64
Average low °F (°C) 48
Precipitation inches (mm) 2.60
Source: Weather Channel

Newport Beach has the only coconut palm trees growing on the west coast of the USA.


Newport Beach is home to one Fortune 500 company, insurer Pacific Life. Other companies based in Newport Beach include Acacia Research, Conexant, Galardi Group (Wienerschnitzel, The Original Hamburger Stand, and Tastee-Freez) Jazz Semiconductor, and PIMCO. Fletcher Jones Motor Cars in Newport Beach is the largest Mercedes-Benz dealership in the world. At one time Edwards Theatres had its headquarters in Newport Beach. Before its dissolution Air California was headquartered in Newport Beach. The city's largest law firm is Stradling Yocca Carlson & Rauth, with approximately 75 attorneys at its Fashion Island location.

Top employers

According to the City's 2011 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are:

# Employer # of employees
1 Hoag Memorial Hospital Presbyterian 5,000
2 Pacific Life 1,119
3 Glidewell Dental 1,100
4 Pimco 1,005
5 Newport-Mesa Unified School District 895
6 City of Newport Beach 807
7 Resort at Pelican Hill 750
8 TowerJazz 554
9 Balboa Bay Club & Resort 500
10 The Island Hotel 480
11 Fletcher Jones Motor Cars 450
12 Newport Beach Marriott Hotel & Tennis Club 334


Points of interest

Famous past landmarks


Orange Coast College sailing school

Beaches and surfing

Beachgoers have flocked to Newport Beach since the Pacific Electric Railway started bringing them in 1905.

Attractions include the city beaches from the Santa Ana River to the tip of the Balboa Peninsula, Corona del Mar State Beach, and the beaches at Crystal Cove State Park.

Newport Beach is renowned for good surfing, especially between Newport Pier and the Santa Ana River. At the tip of the Balboa Peninsula, The Wedge offers world-class bodyboarding and bodysurfing.

Newport Pier and Balboa Pier draw fishermen and sightseers.

A boardwalk (actually a concrete path) runs 2.9 miles (4.7 km) from 36th Street in West Newport, past Newport Pier and Balboa Pier, to between E and F Streets on the Balboa Peninsula.

Harbor and boating

BALBOA PAVILION Sunset Silhouette

Newport Harbor is the largest recreational boat harbor on the U.S. west coast, and a popular destination for all boating activities, including sailing, fishing, rowing, kayaking,and paddleboarding.

The annual Christmas Boat Parade dates back to 1908. The New York Times has called it, "One of the top ten holiday happenings in the nation."

Competitive sailing, rowing, and paddling events occur almost every weekend, and weekdays during summer. The annual Newport to Ensenada International Yacht Race is the largest sailboat race in the world.

Boating activities are organized by five private yacht clubs, along with Orange Coast College, UC Irvine, and the Sea Scouts, all of which have sailing, rowing, and water activity bases on the harbor. The Newport Aquatic Center allows open public participation in competitive rowing, canoeing, kayaking, and outrigger canoe racing. The Orange Coast College School of Sailing and Seamanship offers recreational and professional sailing and mariners' courses and certifications, including United States Coast Guard licensing.

Hand-carried boats may be launched from Newport Harbor's public beaches. A launching ramp at The Dunes RV Resort and Marina provides access for trailered boats.

Harbor boat tours feature celebrity homes and other waterfront points of interest. Large charter vessels cater to weddings and other special events. Rental and charter boats of all sizes and types are available from several operators.

The Newport Harbor Nautical Museum is dedicated to the history of Newport Harbor, and the industries and people that were attracted to the waters of Newport Beach.

Nautical Clubs of Newport Beach


On the Balboa Peninsula, the historic Balboa Pavilion and Balboa Island Ferry are the city's most famous landmarks. Adjacent to the Pavilion, the 500 passenger Catalina Flyer provides daily transportation to and from Avalon, located on Santa Catalina Island. In the same vicinity, the Balboa Fun Zone offers a merry-go-round and ferris wheel, bungee jumping, arcade games, souvenir shops and eateries, boat rentals, and harbor tour boat rides; and is also home to the Newport Harbor Nautical Museum.

Balboa Island's village charm draws many visitors. A waterfront path around the island attracts walkers and joggers, and provides easy access from the ferry to the shops and restaurants on Marine Ave.

Outdoors and nature

Standing paddleboarders and rowers enjoying Upper Newport Bay
Standing paddleboarders and rowers enjoying Upper Newport Bay

Upper Newport Bay, or the Back Bay, is ringed by Back Bay Drive and a network of trails and paths that attract bicyclists, rollerbladers, joggers, and walkers.

Bird watchers and nature lovers are drawn to the Upper Newport Bay Ecological Reserve and Peter and Mary Muth Interpretive Center; and to Crystal Cove State Park, which features tide pools at the beach, and backcountry hiking and mountain biking trails.

Camping is available at Crystal Cove State Park, and at the Newport Dunes RV Park Resort and Marina.

Whale watching is also popular, with both scheduled and charter boats leaving from Newport Harbor.

Fishing is also extremely popular in Newport Bay, off the coast of Newport, and along the Newport Bay Jetty. In the bay there are multiple locations to purchase bait for convenience. There are about 80 fishable fish located in Newport Bay. A few of the most commonly fished species are: Gray Smoothhound Shark, Leopard Shark, Round Stingray, Shovelnose Guitarfish, Pacific Staghorn, Sculpin Killifish, Longjaw Mudsucker, Arrow Goby, Mosquitofish, Silvery Mullet, Top-smelt, Deepbody Anchovy, California Halibut, Spotted Sand Bass, Yellowfin Croaker, Bat Ray, Thornback Ray, Diamond Turbot, Yellowfin Goby, Threadfin Shad, Pacific Sardine, Northern Anchovy, Shiner Surfperch, Corbina, Opaleye, Pile Surfperch, Red Shiner, Fathead Minnow, and Tilappia. Commercial fishing is also prominent in offshore Newport Beach and Newport Bay. One such sea creature commercially fished in the reefs in this area is lobster. Lobster season opens in late September


The boardwalk is a natural draw for bicyclists. Beach cruiser bikes can be rented at several places on the Balboa Peninsula. Bicyclists are also drawn to Back Bay Drive and the bike paths around Upper Newport Bay; the hilly roads winding through Newport Coast and the San Joaquin Hills; and the mountain biking trails in the San Joaquin Hills and Crystal Cove State Park. Pacific Coast Highway provides access to these areas and is a major bicycle route through the region, despite being shared with heavy motor vehicle traffic.

Many neighborhoods in Newport Beach are amenable to bicycling. Locals are inclined to use bicycles for short trips, especially to get through summer beach traffic and avoid motor vehicle parking shortages.


The Pelican Hill area has two golf courses, both of which reopened in November 2007 after design enhancements were completed, as well as the construction of a new resort and clubhouse. Both courses rank among the Golf Digest America's 100 Greatest Public Golf Courses.

Culture and nightlife

Fashion Island in Newport Center

Fashion Island at Newport Center is a popular regional shopping and entertainment destination. Also at Newport Center, the Orange County Museum of Art exhibits modern and contemporary art, with emphasis on the work of Californian artists.

The Newport Theater Arts Center presents high quality live theater in a 90-seat venue with low ticket prices.

The bars and restaurants within a few blocks of Newport Pier are a regional nightlife destination. Newport Beach also features numerous clubs including the popular Ten Nightclub. Many college students and young adults flock to Newport Beach on the weekends for entertainment. Also, many musical groups come and play at these clubs and venues.

Dining Newport Beach like any oceanfront town tends to focus on seafood restaurants but there are a variety of restaurants that range in price and type of food. Some of the nicest and most expensive restaurants in Newport Beach are for instance the 21 Oceanfront, Bayside Restaurant, Sol Grill, Gulfstream and Fleming's Prime Steak House. Some local favorite food vendors include: Crab Cooker, Bear Flag Fish Co., and True Food Kitchen.

Walkable villages

The village areas of Corona del Mar and Balboa Island are ideal for walking to explore the shops and restaurants; as are the Balboa Village area between the ferry and the pier, and the area encompassing Newport Pier, McFadden Square, Cannery Village and Lido Village.

Farmers' markets

Newport Beach has two farmers' markets: Saturday mornings in Corona Del Mar, at the corner of Marguerite and Pacific Coast Highway; and Sunday mornings in Lido Village, where Via Oporto is closed to traffic. The farmers market at Via Oporto has great ratings and provides great food through around 15 vendors. It is also tremondously beautiful scenery with redbrick roads hidden from the constant traffic congestion of Newport.


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