LAW TRAINING, EMPLOYMENT LAW TRAINING COURSES, EMPLOYMENT LAW
COURSES ONLINE, EMPLOYMENT LAW, EMPLOYMENT LAW SEMINARS, Employment
Law Courses, Employment Law Training Course, Employment Law
Training for HR Professionals, Employment Law Training Seminars,
HR Training and Development, HR Training Courses, FMLA, ADA,
EEO,, FSLA, HIPPA
EMPLOYMENT LAW & HR TRAINING SERVICES,
Improving On-The-Job Performance And Skills. Reducing
Law Training Seminars, Certification, ONLINE Employment Law
Training, DVD Training Classes, In-House Training, AUDIO Training,
Management & Law, Inc.
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Newport Beach, California 92660
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or legal advice. The articles are from free sources.
employers are working their employees harder, not smarter.
- David Coates"
magic formula that successful businesses have discovered
treat customers like guests and
employees like people.
--Thomas J. Peters"
the end, all business operations
can be reduced to three words: people, product and profits.
Unless you've got a good team, you can't do much with
the other two. --Lee Iacocca"
US LABOR LAW
Employment Law Training
and HR Training
IAML is the nation's
leading producer of comprehensive employment law
Amazing Skills, While Reducing Litigation Risks
employment law attorneys and popular IAML
instructors, Raymond M. Deeny (left) Partner,
Sherman & Howard; John F. Wymer, III (second
from left), Partner, Paul, Hastings, Janofsky
& Walker; and Gavin S. Appleby (second from
right), Partner, Littler Mendelson; with
Robert M. Lee (center), Executive Director,
IAML; and Eric E. Jackson, President, IAML
IAML Seminars: For more than 38 years, IAML's
sole focus has been to produce the finest, most
current and practically-oriented training programs.
We are proud of our reputation, which is based
your on-the-job performance and skills...immediately.
Providing virtually all the information
needed to function effectively in the employment
law aspect of a job.
Increasing your confidence in dealing with
complex employee relations law issues.
Helps participants to deal more pro-actively
with employee relations law issues.
Enable participants to take concrete and
specific actions to substantially reduce
their organization's downside risk to expensive,
time-consuming and risky litigation.
Increasing the participant's value to their
organization. Provides participants with
an excellent environment to meet colleagues
and share ideas.
Earns full program participants a widely
recognized and respected certificate credential.
TRAINING I EVER ATTENDED!"
the best training I have ever attended. Ray
Deeny is a fabulous instructor. His cutting
edge knowledge and information made learning
fun. Time flew by, left me wanting more." Gary
Sackman Vice President, Human Resources W &
W Steel, LLC Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
Click on the seminar
title for detailed information.
CERTIFICATE IN EMPLOYEE RELATIONS LAW
definitive seminar in the employment
law field since 1979. Practical, effective,
completely current and comprehensive...professionally
rewarding and stimulating. Extensive
materials and truly outstanding faculty
of prominent employment law attorneys
who are also excellent presenters. Rigorous,
CERTIFICATE IN ESSENTIALS OF HUMAN RESOURCE
4 1/2 day seminar provides a comprehensive
foundation in critical human resource
subjects including and employment law
overview; how to cope-complying with the
legal requirements; hiring strategies;
training; and compensation practices.
Designed for both novice and experienced
HR professionals. Terrific faculty.
highly rated 4 1/2 day seminar provides
state-of-the-art best practices for employee
benefits professionals. Current, practically-oriented
and detailed information. Outstanding
faculty, extensive materials. Indispensable
training for the benefits professional.
FROM IAML EMPLOYMENT LAW TRAINING
If the below show pictures are not
coming up please "click here"
Certificate in Employee Relations Law Seminar
is the original, proven seminar that has been
presented many hundreds of times since 1979.
This is a practical, professionally prepared
and presented program which covers all facets
of employment law.
every past attendee said their participation
in the program was worth the time and investment.
More than 99% of past participants say this
program improved their professional performance
95% of past participants say the Certificate
in Employee Relations Law Seminar is better
than other programs of its type.
On a scale of 1 to 5, with 5 being the highest
possible ranking, the average evaluation of
the faculty has been 4.7.
The Certificate in Employee Relations Law Seminar
is comprised of three "blocks" of instruction
which are presented over 4 1/2 consecutive days.
Participants are encouraged to register for
the entire program however, registrations for
only one or two of the blocks are accepted.
Information for On the Job Applications
All instruction and reference materials were
developed so they can be applied in the everyday
workplace. Participants learn the requirements
of laws and regulations and how to deal with
them in their own organizations.
seminar reference materials (about 1,000 pages)
are specially prepared for this seminar and
are completely current. The materials are provided
to participants during the seminar and serve
as valuable desktop reference manuals on the
The Certificate in Employee Relations Law is
awarded when a participant attends all three
blocks of the seminar. No examinations are given.
These engraved certificates are mailed two to
four weeks after the end of each program. NOTE:
If you complete only one or two blocks you can
still receive a certificate if you complete
the remaining block or blocks within a two year
period. All blocks need not be completed at
the same location.
All seminar block leaders are nationally renowned
employment law attorneys from leading law firms
who have extraordinary legal backgrounds, extensive
practical experience and a demonstrated ability
to teach the material in an interesting manner.
Faculty members encourage questions from participants.
All your questions will be answered during the
ample time provided during sessions, at breaks,
lunches and after the sessions. The collegial
atmosphere fosters the sharing of ideas and
experiences among participants.
Participants tell us that this program improves
on-the-job effectiveness, and increases capacity
for career growth.
EMPLOYMENT LAW SEMINAR
What People are
Saying About Our Employment Law Training ...
was extremely happy with the presenters. The
information exceeded my expectations and the
other participants were very helpful in sharing
their experiences. I signed up for this course
after researching 'human resources training'
on the Internet. I reviewed a lot of different
training programs and determined the information
on your website was the most thorough and comprehensive."
Teresa Malekzadeh Executive Director John F.
Font PhD & Associates San Jose, California
Ann Sanchez was extremely dynamic in her presentation
skills and seemed to take a vested interest
in our learning the information. I was very
impressed with her background and appreciated
hearing her personal experiences which help
to bring the information to life!" Ashley Heird
Senior Human Resources Manager Bloomin' Brands
WORTH TIME AND MONEY!"
instructors were very informative and presented
very well. The knowledge I gained was great
and the interaction was outstanding. Well worth
the time and money." Alan J. Rasmussen Regional
Association Relations Manager Big Lots, Inc.
was an interesting approach. I am used to formal
presentations, with audience dialogue and questions.
The use of case studies generated a lot of discussion.
I also enjoyed that Mr. Wymer encouraged audience
participation and allowed us to arrive at the
answers instead of just answering the questions
for us." Liz Forchione Human Resources Generalist
CommDoc, Inc. Uniontown, Ohio
TRAINING I EVER ATTENDED!"
the best training I have ever attended. Ray
Deeny is a fabulous instructor. His cutting
edge knowledge and information made learning
fun. Time flew by, left me wanting more." Gary
Sackman Vice President, Human Resources W &
W Steel, LLC Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
INSTRUCTORS BRING REAL WORLD KNOWLEDGE!"
instructors bring real world knowledge and experience
to the subject and make the sessions informative
and fun." Anthony Pipitone Vice President, Finance
& Administration Center City District Philadelphia,
class structure. Loved the case studies and
group interaction. Relevant and engaging. Also
liked the law updates and legal perspective."
Christy Richards HR Service Partner Mayo Clinic
Rochester Rochester, Minnesota
covered a lot of material. Really enjoyed mixing
up in groups and hearing how other companies
handle a particular situation. Interesting and
insightful." Judith M. Shorter, PHR Sr. Human
Resources Generalist Purdue Research Foundation
and Cindy's knowledge is overwhelming - their
ability to get participants fully engaged is
amazing. I was so thrilled with the workshop
that half-way through I called my general manager
and thanked her for allowing me to attend. A
truly professional workshop conducted with high
standards and expertise. Postively one of the
best workshops I've ever attended, worth every
minute away from the office." Shani Dues Human
Resources Consultant Pooling Resources, Inc.
Las Vegas, Nevada
A GREAT DEAL!"
really enjoyed the seminar. I learned a great
deal and will definitely be able to apply what
I learned once I'm back in the office." Alana
Tomczyszyn Human Resources Generalist II CWS
Capital Partners LLC Austin, Texas
FORTUNATE HR PROFESSIONALS!"
always enjoy this seminar. It really means alot
to fully trust the information that I receive
from these wonderful instructors. We as HR professionals
are very fortunate for their participation in
IAML programs!" Sharon Moran Senior Benefits
Administrator Salt River Materials Group Clarkdale,
MORE REVIEWS PLEASE "CLICK HERE"
Clients For In-house Training Include:
Resources Association of Central
& Johnson, ASP
County General Hospital
Martin Aeronautics Co.
Los Alamos National Laboratory
Nuclear Operating Co.
Some organizations have sponsored more
than 100 employees and many have made
this seminar mandatory or part of their
regular training plan. We encourage you
to review the partial list of participating
Hour Fitness Worldwide Inc.
Cash Express, Inc.
County School District 14
Service International Group
Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium
Alaska Permanent Fund Corp.
Alco Management, Inc.
Alfa Insurance Company
Alliance Imaging, Inc.
Allina Health System
Alpha Coal West, Inc.
Alpha Natural Resources
Alta Bates Summit Medical Center
Alyeska Pipeline Service Co.
American Association for the Advancement
American Baptist Homes of the Midwest
American Cancer Society, Inc.
American Dehydrated Foods, Inc.
American Eagle Outfitters, Inc.
American Family Insurance
American Honda Motor Company
American International Group (AIG)
American Proteins, Inc.
AmeriGas Propane Company Ameripath,
Ameriprise Financial Inc.
Ameristar Casino, Inc.
Amerisure Mutual Insurance Co.
Amylin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Ancilla Domini Sisters, Inc.
Androscoggin Valley Hospital
Angel of the Winds Casino
Anne Arundel Medical Center
Antelope Valley Hospital
Applied Minds, LLC
Arbitration Forums, Inc.
Arctic Slope Native Corporation
Aris Horticulture, Inc.
Arizona Public Service Co. (APS)
Arizona State University
Army & Air Force Exchange Service
Art Institute of Portland
Arvest Bank Group
Asahi Kasei Plastics North America
Ascendum Solutions LLC
Aspen Medical Products
Associated Wholesale Grocers, Inc.
Association of Christian Schools International
Assurant Specialty Property
Astellas Pharma US, Inc.
AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP
Atlanta Public Schools
Atlas Pacific Engineering
Atlas Roofing Corporation
Atwood Oceanics, Inc.
Aurora Health Care
Automobile Club of Southern California
Avalere Health, LLC
Aviation Communication & Surveillance
Awarepoint Corporation B/E
Bain & Company
Baker & McKenzie, LLP
Baker Concrete Construction
Baker Hughes Ball Corporation
Baptist Health South Florida
Barksdale Control Products
Barney & Barney, LLC
Barrick Gold of North America, Inc.
Barrick Goldstrike Mines Inc.
Base Technologies, Inc.
Batesville Casket Company
Battelle Energy Alliance
Baxter Healthcare Corporation
Bay Area Hospital
Bay Medical Center
BayCare Health Systems
Baylor College of Medicine
BBA Aviation Shared Services, Inc. Beachbody
Bechtel National, Inc.
Bechtel Systems & Infrastructure, Inc.
Beckman Coulter, Inc.
Bed Bath & Beyond, Inc.
Bemis Company, Inc.
Benton Public Utilities District
Berkowitz Dick Pollack & Brant
Bethesda Lutheran Homes & Services
Bible League International
BIC Advertising Promotional Products
Big Lots, Inc.
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Billy Graham Evangelistic Association
Biotest Pharmaceuticals Corp.
Black Butte Coal Company
Black Hills Federal Credit Union
Blue Ridge Electric Membership Corp.
BlueShield of Illinois
BlueShield of Massachusetts
BlueCross BlueShield of Tennessee
Boar's Head Provisions Co., Inc. Boehringer
Boot Hill Casino & Resort
Booz Allen Hamilton
Borough of North Slope
Boston Private Bank & Trust
Boston Properties Inc
Bovie Medical Corporation
Boyd Gaming Corporation
Brand Energy & Infrastructure Services
Braun Electric Company
BRE Properties, Inc.
BreitBurn Management Company, LLC
Bremner Food Group
Briggs & Stratton Corporation
Brookhaven National Laboratory
Brownstein Hyatt Farber Schreck, LLP
Bryan Cave Powell Goldstein LLP
Buccaneer, a General Dynamics Company
Buchanan Street Partners
Buckeye Partners, L.P.
Buckeye Technologies, Inc.
Buckskin Mining Company
Buy Buy Baby Inc.
C. Martin Company
C.R. Bard, Inc.
Calibre Systems, Inc.
California Institute of Technology
California State University at Fresno
California State University at San Marcos
CalsonicKansei North America, Inc. Calvin
Cambia Health Solutions
Canon Business Solutions
Canon ITS, Inc.
Canon USA, Inc.
Capital Group Companies, Inc.
Caraustar Industries Inc.
Carefirst BlueCross BlueShield Cargotec
Carlisle FoodService Products
Carlson Companies Inc.
Cash America International, Inc. Cassidy
Catalent Pharma Solutions
Catholic Diocese of Arlington
CB & I
CDM Resource Management
CDM Smith Inc.
CEC Entertainment, Inc.
Celanese Chemical Co. Inc.
Centegra Health System
Center City District
Central Arizona College
Central Garden & Pet Company
Central Hudson Gas & Electric
Cessna Aircraft Company
CH2M HILL Companies, Ltd.
Chapel Valley Landscape Co.
Chapman Freeborn Airchartering Inc.
Charles G. Koch
Charter School of San Diego
Cheesecake Factory, Inc.
Chelan County Public Utilities District
Chesapeake Energy Corporation
Chetco Federal Credit Union
Cheyenne Regional Medical Center
Chico's FAS, Inc.
Children's Hospital Boston
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Children's Hospital of the King's Daughters
Christiana Care Health System
Chubb & Son, Inc.
Chubb Group of Insurance Companies
Cisco Systems, Inc.
CITGO Petroleum Corporation
Citizens Energy Group
Citizens Property Insurance Corp.
City of Alexandria
City of Bethel
City of Birmingham
City of Bloomfield
City of Boise
City of Dothan
City of Fort Worth
City of Hope National Medical Center
City of Irvine
City of Kennewick
City of Killeen
City of Lakewood
City of Las Vegas
City of Longmont
City of Meridian
City of Overland Park
City of Racine
City of Rockwall
City of Stillwater
City of Tacoma
City of Vancouver
City of Washington DC
Clean Harbors Environmental Services,
Clear Channel Communications, Inc.
Clearwater Paper Corporation
Cloud Peak Energy
CNH Reman LLC
Coastal Forest Resources Co.
Coca-Cola Bottling Co. Consolidated
Coca-Cola Bottling Company United
Coca-Cola Refreshments USA, Inc.
Coeur Alaska, Inc.
Coffee Regional Medical Center
Colonial Pipeline Company
Comcast Cable Communications
Commonwealth Credit Union
Commonwealth of Massachusetts Community
Health Services, Inc.
CompHealth Associates, Inc.
Computer Services Inc.
CONSOL Energy Inc.
Consolidated Diesel Company
Constant Care Management Co.
Constellation Brands, Inc.
Continental Automotive Systems US Inc.
Cook Inlet Native Head Start
Cornerstone Chemical Company
Corporate One Federal Credit Union
Corporation Service Co.
Corrections Corporation of America
Costco Wholesale Corporation
County of Campbell
County of Chatham
County of Clallam
County of Clark
County of Cook
County of Dona Ana
County of Fairfax
County of Gwinnett
County of Johnson
County of Lake
County of Lewis
County of Orange
County of Palm Beach
County of Pinellas
County of Polk
County of Salt Lake
County of San Juan
County of Teton
County of Wake
County of Washoe
County of Weber
Coventry Health Care, Inc.
Cowles Publishing Company
Cracker Barrel Old Country Store, Inc.
Crane Composites, Inc.
Crawford Supply Group
Credit Union of Ohio
CREOKS Behavioral Health Services
Crescent Healthcare, Inc.
Crowe Horwath LLP
Crum & Forster
CSM Bakery Products
Cumberland Gulf Group of Companies
Cuyahoga Community College
CWS Capital Partners LLC
Dako North America
Dakota Growers Pasta Company
Dakota State University
Dallas Fort Worth International Airport
Damon G. Douglas Company
Darden Restaurants, Inc.
Day & Zimmermann
Day & Zimmermann
Deere & Company
Defense Intelligence Agency
Del Monte Foods Company
Deloitte & Touche, LLP
Deloitte Development LLC
Delta Dental of Oklahoma
Deluxe Laboratories, Inc.
Denbury Resources Inc.
Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation
Des Moines University
Deseret Mutual Benefits Administrators
Detroit Medical Center
Deutsch Industrial US
Developmental Disability Resource Center
DFA of California
Dialysis Clinic Inc.
Diamond Wire Materials Technology
Direct General Corporation
Disabled American Veterans
Discover Financial Services
Diversity Training Group
Dixie Regional Medical Center
DLA Piper, Rudnick, Gray, Cary
Doe Run Company
Dollar General Corporation
Domtar Paper Company, LLC
Donahoe Risk Management
Doosan Infracore International Inc.
Dow Corning Corporation
Dowden Health Media
Doyon Remote Facilites & Services, LLC
Drummond Company Inc.
Ducommun AeroStructures, Inc.
Duke Energy Corporation
Dunham & Associates Investment Council,
DVA Federal Credit Union
Dyno Nobel Inc.
E2E Resources, Inc.
EADS North America
East Texas CareTeam, Inc.
Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians
Eastman Chemical Company
Eaton Vance Management, Inc.
Eberline Services Hanford, Inc.
EchoStar Technologies L.L.C.
Edgerton & Weaver, LLP
Edison Mission Energy
Edison Mission Operations & Maintenance
Education Management Corporation
Education Services Foundation
Educational Employees Credit Union
Edward Hospital & Health Services
Edwards & Associates, Inc.
Edwards Lifesciences Corporation
Election Systems & Software
Emerald Queen Hotel & Casinos
Empire Today, LLC
EMW Energy Northwest
Epson America, Inc.
Equity Office Properties Trust
Erickson Retirement Communities
Erlanger Health System
Ernst & Young, LLP
ESPN Essential Power, LLC
Estee Lauder Companies
Evergreen State College
Expro Americas Inc.
Extra Space Storage
Fagen Friedman & Fulfrost LLC
Fairbanks Native Association
Fairmount Long Term Care/PNH
Faith Farm Ministries
Family First Federal Credit Union
Famous Recipe Operations Inc.
Farm Credit Bank of Texas
Farm Credit Services of Mid-America
Feather River Hospital
Federal Credit Union
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Federal Emergency Management Agency
Federal Home Loan Bank of Indianapolis
Federal Reserve Bank, Atlanta
Federal Reserve Bank, Boston
Federal Reserve Bank, Dallas
Federal Reserve Bank, New Yor
k Federal Reserve Bank, San Francisco
Federal Reserve Board
Federated Mutual Insurance Co.
Fedex Office & Print Services, Inc.
Fibre Federal Credit Union
Fifth Third Bank
Firelands Regional Medical Center
First Data Corporation
First Federal Savings & Loan
First Financial Corporation
First Midwest Bank
First Republic Bank
First Solar, Inc.
Fisher Communications, Inc.
Five Star Credit Union
Flathead Electric Cooperative
Flint Hills Resources
Florida Power & Light
Florida State University
FMC Technologies, Inc.
Forest Laboratories Inc.
Forest Lawn Memorial-Parks & Mortuaries
Foundation Surgery Affiliates
Franz Family Bakeries
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold
Friendly Ice Cream Corporation
FrontRange Solutions Inc.
Frost Bank FTI Consulting, Inc.
G4S Integrated Services, Inc.
G4S Secure Solutions (USA), Inc.
Garden of Life
Gaylord Opryland Resort & Convention
General Atomics Aeronautical Systems
General Dynamics General
Dynamics Advanced Information Systems
General Dynamics C4 Systems
General Dynamics Information Technology
General Dynamics SATCOM Technologies
General Growth Properties
General Mills, Inc.
General Moly, Inc.
General Motors Corporation
Genesis HealthCare Systems
George Mason University
Georgetown University Hospital
Georgia Power Co.
Georgia Southern University
Georgia State University
Gerdau AmeriSteel Corporation
Giant Food Stores Inc.
Gila River Gaming Enterprises, Inc.
Gilead Sciences, Inc.
Giles Electric Company, Inc.
Goodrich Aerostructures Group
Grace Pacific Corporation
Grant Thornton LLP
Graphic Packaging International, Inc.
Graybar Services, Inc.
Greater Hudson Bank
Greater Phoenix Economic Council
Great-West Life & Annuity Insurance
Greystar Real Estate Partners
Grosvenor Capital Management, LP
Group Voyagers, Inc.
Guaranteed Rate, Inc.
Guidance Software, Inc.
Guilford County Schools
Gulfstream Aerospace Corp.
Gypsum North America
H & R Block Inc.
H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research
H.E.B. Grocery Company
Hahnemann University Hospital
Hallmark Capital Group, LLC
Hannaford Bros. Co.
Harley-Davidson Motor Company
Harrah's Cherokee Casino
Harris N.A. Hawkeye Valley Area Agency
Hayes Lemmerz International
HCA Shared Services
HCC Insurance Holdings
Health Management Resources Corp.
Health Management Systems
Health Net, Inc.
Hecla Mining Company
Hemlock Semiconductor Group
Hendrickson USA, L.L.C.
Henry M. Jackson Foundation
Herman Miller, Inc.
Hilton Hotels Corporation
Hitachi America Ltd.
Hitachi Automotive Systems Americas,
Hitachi Consulting Corporation
HM Insurance Group
HNTB Holland America Line
Home Box Office
Home Depot, Inc.
Honda R&D Americas, Inc.
Honeywell Safety Products
Hoosier Park Racing & Casino
Hornbeck Offshore Services, Inc.
HR Textron, Inc.
HSB Group, Inc.
HSBC - North America
HSC Pediatric Center
Hunter Fan Co.
Huntington Ingalls Industries, Inc.
Hunton & Williams
Hurley Medical Center
Huttig Building Products
Hyundai Motor America
Ibis Golf & Country Club
ICF International, Inc.
Idaho National Engineering & Environmental
Idaho Power Company
IDEXX Laboratories Inc.
iGATE Americas Inc.
Illinois Action for Children
IMA Financial Group
Imperial Sugar Company
Indiana Insurance Company
Indiana State University
Indianapolis Power & Light Company
Inergy Automotive Systems USA
Ingram Industries Inc.
Inland Empire Hospital Services Association
Innophos Instinet, LLC
Institute of Public Administration,
Integra Lifesciences Holding Corp.
Integrated DNA Technologies, Inc.
InterContinental Hotels Group
Intermountain Power Service Corp.
International Transportation Services
Ion Media Networks
Iron Mountain, Inc.
Irving Oil Limited
Isle of Capri Casinos Inc.
J. Craig Venter Institute
J.R. Simplot Company
Jabil Circuit, Inc.
Jackson National Life Insurance Co.
Jacobs Technology Inc.
Janssen Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical
Jefferson Regional Medical Center
JM Eagle, Inc.
JM Family Enterprises
Jo-Ann Fabric & Craft Stores
John Crane Inc.
John Deere Company
John Deere Landscapes
John Hancock Financial Services, Inc.
John Hancock Life Insurance
John Zink Company, LLC
Johns Hopkins Medicine
Johns Hopkins University
Johnson & Johnson
Johnson Controls Inc.
Jones Lang LaSalle Incorporated
Jorge Scientific Corporation
Jos. A. Bank Clothiers, Inc.
JPMorgan Chase & Co.
JPMorgan Chase Bank, NA JT3 LLC
Juneau Alliance for Mental Health,
Kadant Black Clawson
Kaneka North America LLC
Katz, Teller, Brant & Hild
Kaweah Delta Health Care District
Kennewick General Hospital
Kensington Gold Mine
Kent Intermediate School District
Kentucky Employers' Mutual Insurance
Ketchikan Indian Community
Kiewit Mining Group
King Soopers Inc.
Klein Tools, Inc.
Knowledge Learning Corporation
Koch Business Solutions
Koch Fertilizer, LLC
Koch Heat Transfer Company, LP
Koch Industries, Inc.
Koch Mineral Services LLC
Koch Pipeline Company LP
Kodiak Area Native Association
Komatsu America Corporation
Kraft Foods Inc.
Kroenke Sports Enterprises
Kroger Vandervoort Dairy
Kyocera Mita South Carolina, Inc.
L-3 Vertex Aerospace
Lackland Air Force Base
Laclede Gas Company
Lakeside Foods, Inc.
Lancaster General Health
LandAmerica Financial Group, Inc.
Las Vegas Valley Water District
Leader Tech, Inc.
Lego Systems, Inc.
Lehigh Hanson, Inc.
Lehigh Southwest Cement Co.
Liberty Media Corporation
Liberty Mutual Group, Inc.
Lifetime Healthcare Companies
Lifeway Christian Resources
Lincoln Financial Media
Little Blue Valley Sewer District
LM Wind Power Blades Inc.
Lockheed Federal Credit Union
Lockheed Martin Corporation
Lockheed Martin Missiles & Fire Control
LogistiCare Solutions, LLC
Loomis Los Alamos National Laboratory
Los Angeles County Metro Transit Authority
Louisiana Tech University
Lowe's Companies, Inc.
Loyola College in Maryland
Loyola University Maryland
LVMH Fashion Group America
LYNX M. Davis & Sons
Mack Energy Company
MAPFRE USA Corp.
Marathon Oil Corporation
Marine Corps Community Services
Market Strategies International
Marriott International, Inc.
Mary E. Bivins Foundation
Massimo Zanetti Beverage USA
MassMutual Financial Group
Mayo Clinic, Rochester
Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale
McCain Foods USA, Inc.
McConnell Valdes LLC
McDonough Bolyard Peck, Inc.
McKee Foods Corporation
McLane Company, Inc.
MDU Resources Group, Inc.
Meadowbrook Insurance Group
Mercedes-Benz USA, LLC
Merchant Link, LLC
Mericle Commercial Real Estate
Hospital of Southern California
Methodist LeBonheur Healthcare
Metropolitan Life Insurance Co (Metlife)
Metropolitan Transit Authority of
Michigan Technological University
Mid-Atlantic Permanente Medical Group
Midway Hotel Center
Midwest Bank & Trust
Mille Lacs Band Corporate Commission
Mission Support Alliance
Mitsubishi Electric/Electronics USA
MMM Healthcare Inc.
MOBIS Mohegan Sun Casino
Montana State University
Montgomery County Hospital District
Morehead State University
Morgan Borszcz Consulting
Morrison & Foerster, LLP
Mortgage Network, Inc.
Motor Coach Industries International
MullinTBG, a Prudential Financial
Municipality of Anchorage
Murphy Oil Corporation
Muscatine Power & Water
Mutual of Omaha
NANA Management Services
Nathan Adelson Hospice
National Association of Insurance
National Dentex Corporation
National Education Association
National Electrical Contractors Association
National Gypsum Company
National Institute of Standards &
National Jewish Health
National Marine Manufacturers Association
National Retail Systems
National Security Technologies
Native Americans for Community Action
Naval Research Laboratory
Navigators Group, Inc.
Navigators Management Company
Navy Federal Credit Union
NBC Universal, Inc.
Neighborhood House Association
Nestle Purina PetCare
Nestle USA NetJets Inc.
Nevada State Bank
New York State Nurses Association
New York State United Teachers
Newmont Mining Corporation
Nigeria LNG Limited
NMB (USA), Inc.
American Energy Services
North American Stainless
North East Utilities Service Co.
North Middlesex Regional School District
NorthBay Healthcare System
Northern Maine Medical Center
Northern Panhandle Head Start Inc.
Northstar Behavioral Health Services
Northwestern Energy Northwestern Mutual
Life Insurance Co.
Nova Southeastern University
Novartis, Alcon Division
Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc.
Nutramax Laboratories, Inc.
NXStage Medical Inc.
Oberto Sausage Company
Oberweis Dairy Inc.
Ocean Properties, Limited
OGE Energy Corporation
Ogletree Deakins Nash Smoak & Stewart
O'Hare Airport Transit Systems, Inc.
Ohio State University
Ohio Valley Community Credit Union
Oklahoma Gas & Electric
Old Line Bank Oldcastle APG West,
On Command Corporation
Onyx Acceptance Corporation
Operating Engineers Local 825
OPW Fueling Components
Orange County Transportation Authority
Orbital Sciences Corporation
Oregon Health & Science University
Orlando Utilities Commission
P & H MinePro
Pacific Life Insurance Co.
Packaging Corporation of America
Panda Restaurant Group, Inc.
Papa Murphy's International, Inc.
Parallon Business Solutions, LLC
PAREXEL International Corporation
Parker Hannifin Corporation
Parkland Health & Hospital System
Partners Community HealthCare
Partners HealthCare System
Patton Boggs, LLP
Payless ShoeSource, Inc.
PC Connection, Inc.
Pechanga Resort & Casino
Pend Orielle Mine
Penn National Gaming Inc.
Pennsylvania State University
Pepco Holdings, Inc.
Perkins Coie, LLP
Perot Systems Corporation
Petrobras America, Inc. Pfizer Inc.
PGT Industries Pharmaceutical
Product Development (PPD)
Philadelphia Gas Works
Pike Electric, Inc.
PJM Interconnection, LLC
Plainfield Municipal Utilities Authority
Plews & Edelmann
Plow & Hearth
PNM Resources, Inc.
Polish & Slavic Federal Credit Union
Pooling Resources, Inc.
Port of Seattle
Portland Community College
Portland General Electric Co.
Portland State University
Potawatomi Bingo Casino
Power House Resources International, Inc
Prairie Knights Casino
Precision Drilling Oilfield Services
Premera Blue Cross
Preti Flaherty Beliveau
Pachios & Haley LLP
PreVisor PRGX Global, Inc.
Prince George's County Public Schools
Printing House, Ltd.
PRO Sports Club
Procter & Gamble
Prosteel Proteus, Inc.
Provision Ministry Group
Prudential Financial, Inc.
Prudential Insurance Company of America
PSCU Financial Services
Public Service Company of New Hampshire
Purdue Research Foundation
QinetiQ North America Operations LLC
Quadra FNX Mining Ltd.
Quanex Building Products Corporation
Quintiles Transnational Corp.
R.L. Polk & Co.
Radia Medical Imaging
Radian Group Inc.
Radiation Therapy Services, Inc.
Ralcorp Holdings, Inc.
Ralph Lauren Corporation
Raymond James & Associates, Inc.
RBS Group Reality Check Systems
Red Bull North America Inc.
Redwood Credit Union
Regal Beloit Corporation
Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Regional Transportation District
Reinhart Food Service
Renal Ventures Management, LLC
Reyes Holdings LLC
Richmond Redevelopment & Housing Authority
Rio Tinto Risk Strategies Company
River Valley Bank Road & Rail Services,
. Robert Bosch Corporation
Robins, Kaplan, Miller & Ciresi, LLP
Roche Molecular Diagnostics
Rochester Laborers' Welfare Fund
Rockland Federal Credit Union
Rockwell Collins, Inc.
Rome Research Corporation
Roxcomp Community Health Center
Royal Credit Union
Royal Gold, Inc.
RT Communications, Inc.
Ruiz Foods Russell Pacific LLC
Safe Credit Union
Safety-Kleen Systems, Inc.
Salt River Materials Group
Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community
Salt River Project
Samson Investment Company
San Francisco Public Utilities Commission
Sandia National Laboratories
Santa Margarita Water District
Sargent & Lundy, LLC
Saudi Telecom Company
Save-A-Lot Food Stores, Inc.
Scholastic Book Fairs
Schreiber Foods, Inc.
Scottsdale Healthcare Corporation
Seattle Public Library
Sebris Busto James
Securities & Exchange Commission Nigeria
Sedgwick Claims Management
SEGA of America, Inc.
SEIU Local 1000
Selective HR Solutions
Sentry Insurance Company
Shaw Industries Group, Inc.
Sheridan Memorial Hospital
Shook Hardy & Bacon
Shurtape Technologies, LLC
Siemens Energy & Automation
Siemens Energy Service
Siemens Power Generation
Signature Flight Support
Simon Property Group, Inc.
Sinclair Oil Corporation
SKF USA Inc.
Smith & Nephew, Inc.
Smithfield Foods, Inc.
Smithfield Packing Co., Inc.
SNC-Lavalin Constructors, Inc.
Snohomish County PUD 1
SOC Nevada, LLC
Social Security Administration
Society of Counsel Representing Accused
Society of Manufacturing Engineers
Sonoco Products Company
South Bend Medical Foundation
South Florida Water Management District
South Peninsula Hospital, Inc.
Southboro Medical Group
SouthEast Alaska Regional Health Consortium
Southeast Toyota Distributors, LLC
Southeastern Freight Lines, Inc.
Southern California Edison Company
Southern Company Services
Southern Illinois University
Southern Ute Indian Tribe
Southwest Gas Corporation
Southwest Power Pool
Southwestern Energy Company
Space Coast Credit Union
Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX)
Spirit Mountain Gaming, Inc.
St. Francis Hospital
St. John's Regional Medical Center
St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
St. Jude Medical
St. Louis Convention & Visitors Commission
St. Louis Science Center
St. Margaret's Health
St. Mary Medical Center
St. Regis Mohawk Tribe
Starz Entertainment, LLC
Starz Media, LLC
State Farm Insurance Companies
State of Alaska
State of Connecticut
State of Georgia
State of Maryland
State of Montana
State of New Mexico
State of North Dakota
State of South Dakota
State of Utah
State of West Virginia
Stillwater Mining Company
Stony Brook University
STP Nuclear Operating Company
Sun Life Financial
Sun National Bank
Sun Products Corporation
Suncoast Hotel & Casino
Sunshine Makers, Inc.
SunTrust Banks, Inc.
Swarovski Jewelry U.S. Ltd.
Swedish Match North America, Inc.
Syngenta Crop Protection, Inc.
T. Rowe Price Group, Inc.
Tate & Lyle North America, Inc.
Taylor English Duma LLP
TD Bank Financial
TE Connectivity Tech Data Corporation
Teck Cominco American
TEES Personnel Services
Telerx Marketing, Inc.
TeleTech Holdings, Inc.
Tennessee Valley Federal Credit Union
Terminal Railroad Association of St.
Tesoro Refining & Marketing Co.
Texas A & M University
Texas Adjutant General's Department/Texas
Texas Forest Service
Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc.
Thk Rhythm North America Co., Ltd.
Thrivent Financial for Lutherans
TIB/The Independent BankersBank
TIC-The Industrial Company Wyoming
Time Warner Cable
TJX Companies, Inc.
T-Mobile USA, Inc.
Torqued-Up Energy Services
Torrance Community Credit Union
Engineering & Manufacturing NA
Toyota Material Handling USA
Toyota Motor Sales, USA, Inc.
Toys 'R' Us, Inc.
Tractor Supply Company
Travelers Insurance Co.
Trident Refit Facility
Trinidad Drilling, LP
Triumph Aerostructures Vought Aircraft
TriWest Healthcare Alliance
Tropicana Products, Inc.
Tufts Associated Health Plans, Inc.
Tulsa Community College
Tyler Independent School District
Tyson Foods, Inc.
US Customs & Border Protection
US Department of Commerce
US Department of Energy
US Department of Health & Human Services
US Department of Interior
US Department of State
US Department of Treasury
US Department of Veterans Affairs
US Fish & Wildlife Service
US House of Representatives
US Marine Corps
UBS Global Asset Management
UBS Investment Bank
UMB Financial Corporation
Under Armour, Inc.
Union Hospital, Inc.
Union Telephone Company
United Nations Federal Credit Union
United Online, Inc.
United Parcel Service (UPS)
United States Bakery
United States Steel Corporation
University Corporation for Atmospheric
University Health Associates
University HealthSystem Consortium
University Hospitals University of
Akron University of Alaska University
of Albany, SUNY
University of California, San Diego
University of Central Missouri
University of Cincinnati
University of Delaware
University of Guam
University of Hartford
University of Kansas
University of Massachusetts at Lowell
University of Miami
University of North Texas
University of North Texas Health Science
University of Oregon
University of Richmond
of Southern California
University of St. Thomas
University of Washington
University of Wyoming
USAA Real Estate Company
Utah State University
V & M Star
V & M USA Corporation
Valero Energy Corporation
Valley Federal Credit Union
Valley TeleCom Group
Vallourec North America
VanCott, Bagley, Cornwall & McCarthy
Vangent, Inc., a General Dynamics
Vanguard Group, Inc.
Varco International, Inc.
Veolia Environmental Solutions
Veridian Credit Union
Verizon Wireless, Inc.
Vinmar International, Ltd.
Virginia Credit Union
Virginia Hospital Center
Vision Net, Inc.
Volvo Construction Equipment, NA
W & W Steel, LLC
Wabash National Corporation
Wacker Polysilicon North America
WakeMed Health & Hospitals
Warner Norcross & Judd LLP
Washington Closure Hanford, Inc.
Washington Real Estate Investment
Washington River Protection Solutions
Washington Savannah River Co.
Washington State Bar Association
Washington University in St. Louis
School of Medicine
Waste Management, Inc.
WCM Industries, Inc.
Wegmans Food Markets
Wells Enterprises, Inc.
Wentworth Institute of Technology
West Virginia University Hospitals
West Virginia University Medical Corp.
Westar Energy, Inc.
Western & Southern Financial Group
Western & Southern Life Insurance
Western Digital Corporation
Western Energy Company
Western Mesquite Mines Inc.
Western Michigan University
Western Refining Company
Western Union Weyerhaeuser
White Earth Tribal & Community College
Woodgrain Millwork, Inc.
Woods Equipment Company
Workrite Uniform Company, Inc.
World Omni Financial Corp.
World Vision International
Worthington Industries, Inc.
WSI Wyndham Vacation Ownership
Yamaha Corporation of America Young
Zadhry Industrial Inc.
Zondervan Zotos International, Inc.
Zurich North America
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States labor law is a heterogeneous collection
of state and federal laws.
law not only sets the standards that govern
workers' rights to organize in the private
sector, but also overrides most state
and local laws that attempt to regulate this area.
Federal law also provides more limited rights for
employees of the federal
government. These federal laws do not apply
to employees of state
governments, agricultural workers or domestic
employees; any statutory
protections those workers have derived from
pattern is even more mixed in the area of wages
conditions. Federal law establishes minimum
wages and overtime
rights for most workers in the private and public
sectors; state and local laws may provide more
expansive rights. Similarly, federal law provides
minimum workplace safety standards, but allows the
states to take over those responsibilities and to
provide more stringent standards.
both federal and state laws protect workers from
discrimination. In most areas these two bodies
of law overlap; as an example, federal law permits
states to enact their own statutes barring discrimination
on the basis of race,
origin and age,
so long as the state law does not provide less protections
than federal law would. Federal law, on the other
hand, preempts most state statutes that would bar
employers from discriminating against employees
to prevent them from obtaining pensions
or other benefits or retaliating against them for
asserting those rights.
United States Congress has not ratified the International
Labour Organization Convention
on the Freedom
of Association and Protection of the Right to Organize
Convention, 1948 or the Right
to Organize and Collective Bargaining Convention,
law in the US has traditionally been governed by
the common law rule of "at-will
employment," meaning that an employment relationship
could be terminated
by either party at any time without a reason. This
is still true today in most states. However, starting
in 1941, a series of laws prohibited certain discriminatory
firings. That is, in most states, absent an express
contractual provision to the contrary, an employer
can still fire an employee for no or any reason,
as long as it isn't an illegal reason (which includes
a violation of public policy).
Order 8802 (or the Fair Employment Act) became
the first law to prohibit racial
discrimination, although it only applied to
the national defense industry. Later laws include
VII of the Civil
Rights Act of 1964 (and amendments), Title I
of the Americans
with Disabilities Act of 1990,
and Medical Leave Act of 1993,
and numerous state laws with additional protections.
Labor Standards Act
regulates minimum wages and overtime pay for certain
employees who work more than 40 hours in a work
working an employee must work a minimum of two hours
in a day. Cases of employment discrimination in
the United States are most often subject to the
of the Equal
Employment Opportunity Commission, the federal
commission responsible for the enforcement of the
anti-discrimination laws. Once a case has been filed
with the EEOC or similar state agencies with concurrent
jurisdiction, employees have a right to remove the
case to the courts with the permission of the agency,
or in some instances, after the expiration of a
set time period. Employment law cases are heard
in state or federal courts, depending upon the issue,
the size of the employer (the Civil Rights Act of
for example, applies only to employers with 15 or
more employees), and the litigation strategy of
of unions and organizing
to popular intent, the Sherman
Antitrust Act (1890) led to prosecution
of unions as illegal combinations, but Section 6
of the Clayton
Antitrust Act (1914) ended this practice by
stipulating that unions shall not be "construed
to be illegal combinations or conspiracies in restraint
of trade, under the antitrust laws."
Labor Relations Act (NLRA, the "Wagner Act")
gives private sector workers the right to choose
whether they wish to be represented by a union
and establishes the National
Labor Relations Board (NLRB) to hold elections
for that purpose. As originally enacted in 1935,
the NLRA makes it illegal for employers to discriminate
against workers because of their union membership
or retaliate against them for engaging in organizing
campaigns or other "concerted activities", to form
"company unions", or to refuse to engage in collective
bargaining with the union that represents their
Act (also the "Labor-Management Relations Act"),
passed in 1947, loosened some of the restrictions
on employers, changed NLRB
election procedures, and added a number of new
limitations on unions. The Act, among other things,
prohibits jurisdictional strikes and secondary
boycotts by unions, and authorizes individual
states to pass "right-to-work
laws", regulates pension and other benefit plans
established by unions and provides that federal
courts have jurisdiction to enforce collective
States Congress subsequently tightened those
restrictions on unions in the Labor
Management Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1959,
which also regulates the internal affairs of all
private sector unions, providing for minimum standards
for unions' internal disciplinary proceedings, federal
oversight for unions' elections of their own officers,
standards for union officers' use of union funds.
has since expanded the NLRB's jurisdiction to health
care institutions, with unique rules governing organizing
and strikes against those employers.
NLRA does not, on the other hand, cover governmental
employees, with the exception of employees of the
States Postal Service, a quasi-public entity.
Labor Relations Act provides for much more limited
rights for employees of the federal government;
Congress has, moreover, excluded a number of these
workers in the United
States Department of Homeland Security and elsewhere
from even these limited protections.In order to
keep up with the most recent versions to be in compliance
with federal labor law, employees could get more
detailed information by reading the federal
labor law poster
, which is required to be posted in the company.
law does not provide employees of state and local
governments with the right to organize or engage
in union activities, except to the extent that the
States Constitution protects their rights to
freedom of speech and freedom of association. The
Constitution provides even less protection for governmental
employees' right to engage in collective bargaining:
while it bars public employers from retaliating
against employees for forming a union, it does not
require those employers to recognize that union,
much less bargain with it.
states provide public employees with limited statutory
protections; a few permit public employees to strike
in support of their demands in some circumstances.
Some states, however, particularly in the South,
make it illegal for a governmental entity to enter
into a collective bargaining agreement with a union.
NLRA does not cover agricultural or domestic employees.
A few states have enacted labor laws similar to
the NLRA covering farm workers.
the NLRA does not cover employees in the railroad
and airline industries. Those workers are covered
by the Railway
Labor Act, first passed in 1926, then amended
in 1936 to cover airline employees. The RLA creates
a wholly different structure for resolving labor
disputes, requiring bargaining under indirect governmental
supervision and permitting strikes only in limited
Act of 1932 outlawed the issuance of injunctions
in labor disputes by federal courts. While the Act
does not prevent state courts from issuing injunctions,
it ended what some observers called "government
by injunction", in which the federal courts used
injunctions to prevent unions from striking, organizing
and, in some cases, even talking to workers or entering
certain parts of a state. Roughly half the states
have enacted their own version of the Norris-LaGuardia
the most part the NLRA and RLA displace state laws
that attempt to regulate the right to organize,
to strike and to engage in collective bargaining.
The NLRB has exclusive jurisdiction to determine
whether an employer has engaged in an unfair
labor practice and to decide what remedies should
be provided. States and local governments can, on
the other hand, impose requirements when acting
as market participants, such as requiring that all
sign a project
labor agreement to avoid strikes when building
a public works project, that they could not if they
were attempting to regulate those employers' labor
of wages, benefits and working conditions
Labor Standards Act
of 1938 (FLSA) establishes minimum wage and overtime
rights for most private sector workers, with a number
of exemptions and exceptions. Congress amended the
Act in 1974 to cover governmental employees, leading
to a series of United
States Supreme Court decisions in which the
Court first held that the law was unconstitutional,
then reversed itself to permit the FLSA to cover
FLSA does not preempt state and local governments
from providing greater protections under their own
laws. A number of states have enacted higher minimum
wages and extended their laws to cover workers who
are excluded under the FLSA or to provide rights
that federal law ignores.
governments have also adopted a number of "living
wage" laws that require those employers that contract
with them to pay higher minimum wages and benefits
to their employees. The federal government, along
with many state governments, likewise require employers
to pay the prevailing wage, which typically reflects
the standards established by unions' collective
bargaining agreements in the area, to workers on
public works projects.
Retirement Income Security Act
establishes standards for the funding and operation
of pension and health care plans provided by employers
to their employees. The ERISA preempts most state
legislation that attempts to regulate how such plans
are administered and, to a great extent, what types
of health care coverage they provide. ERISA also
preempts state law claims that an employer discriminated
against employees in order to prevent them from
obtaining the benefits they would have earned otherwise
or to retaliate against them for asserting their
and Medical Leave Act,
passed in 1993, requires employers to provide workers
with twelve weeks of unpaid medical leave and continuing
medical benefit coverage in order to attend to certain
medical conditions of close relatives or themselves.
Many states have comparable statutory provisions;
some states have offered greater protections.
Safety and Health Act,
signed into law in 1970 by President Richard
Nixon, creates specific standards for workplace
safety. The Act has spawned years of litigation
by industry groups that have challenged the standards
limiting the amount of permitted exposure to chemicals
such as benzene.
The Act also provides for protection for "whistleblowers"
who complain to governmental authorities about unsafe
conditions while allowing workers the right to refuse
to work under unsafe conditions in certain circumstances.
The Act allows states to take over the administration
of OSHA in their jurisdictions, so long as they
adopt state laws at least as protective of workers'
rights as under federal law. More than half of the
states have done so.
discrimination and whistleblowers
Congress passed laws barring racial discrimination
by private employers in 1866 with the Civil Rights
Act of 1866,
the Supreme Court's decision in the Civil
Rights Cases made that Act a dead letter for
nearly a century. Congress adopted limited prohibitions
against racial discrimination by defense contractors
War II, but no general prohibition against employment
discrimination until it passed Title VII of the
Rights Act of 1964,
which bars employment discrimination on the basis
of race, gender, national origin and religion.
amended that Act in 1972 to cover governmental employers,
in 1981 to outlaw employment discrimination on the
basis of pregnancy, and again in the Civil
Rights Act of 1991 to overturn a number of decisions
by the Supreme Court limiting employees' rights.
has also protected the rights of workers over forty
years of age in the Age
Discrimination in Employment Act, passed in
1967, and the Americans
with Disabilities Act
of 1990. The Immigration
Reform and Control Act of 1986 also provides
narrow prohibitions against certain types of employment
discrimination based on immigration status.
encourages states to pass their own anti-discrimination
laws; most states outside the South have done so.
A number of states and local governments have also
enacted statutes that expand on the rights that
federal law offers, either by offering greater remedies
or broader protections, or have legislated in areas
that federal law does not cover, such as discrimination
based on sexual
orientation or marital
states and the federal government have also enacted
a welter of laws to protect whistleblowers; these
statutes vary widely in what conduct is protected,
what procedures must be followed to enforce the
law and what remedies are provided. Public sector
employees are also protected from retaliation by
their employers for some forms of whistleblowing
activities by the First
Amendment to the United States Constitution.
most state and federal laws start from the presumption
that workers who are not covered by a collective
bargaining agreement or an individual employment
agreement are "at will" employees who can be fired
without notice and for no stated reason, state and
federal laws prohibiting discrimination or protecting
the right to organize or engage in whistleblowing
activities modify that rule by providing that discharge
or other forms of discrimination are illegal if
undertaken on grounds specifically prohibited by
addition, a number of states have modified the general
rule that employment is at will by holding that
employees may, under that state's common
law, have implied contract rights to fair treatment
by their employers. US private-sector employees
thus do not have the indefinite
contracts (similar to US academic tenure)
traditionally common in many European countries,
Canada and New Zealand.
employees in both federal and state government are
also typically covered by civil service systems
that protect them from unjust discharge. Public
employees who have enough rights against unjustified
discharge by their employers may also acquire a
property right in their jobs, which entitles them
in turn to additional protections under the due
process clause of the Fourteenth
Amendment to the United States Constitution.
Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act,
better known by its acronym as the WARN Act, requires
private sector employers to give sixty days' notice
of large-scale layoffs and plant closures; it allows
a number of exceptions for unforeseen emergencies
and other cases. Several states have adopted more
stringent requirements of their own.
law in individual states
following 24 states are right-to-work states:
addition, the territory of Guam
also has right-to-work laws.
An employee's right-to-work is established under
the state Constitution, not under legislative action.
2010, the organization Save
Our Secret Ballot pushed four states: Arizona,
South Carolina, South Dakota, and Utah to pass constitutional
amendments to ban Card
added the Division of Fair Employment Practices
to the California
Department of Industrial Relations. The Fair
Employment and Housing Act
of 1980 gave the division its own Department
of Fair Employment and Housing, with the stated
purpose of protecting citizens against harassment
discrimination on the basis of:
age, ancestry, color, creed, denial of family and
medical care leave, disability (including HIV/AIDS),
marital status, medical condition, national origin,
race, religion, sex, transgender and orientation.
orientation was not specifically included in
the original law but precedent was established based
law. On October 9, 2011, California Governor
Edmund G. "Jerry" Brown signed into law Assembly
Bill No. 887 alters the meaning of gender for the
purposes of discrimination laws that define sex
as including gender so that California law now prohibits
discrimination on the basis of gender identity and
state also has its own labor law covering agricultural
workers, the California
Agricultural Labor Relations Act.
is a state
located on the West
Coast of the United States. It is by far the
populous U.S. state,
and the third
most extensive (after Alaska
It is home to the nation's 2nd and 6th largest census
statistical areas (Greater
Los Angeles area and San
Francisco Bay Area, respectively), and eight
of the nation's 50
most populated cities (Los
Beach and Oakland).
The capital city is Sacramento.
diverse geography ranges from the Pacific
Coast in the west, to the Sierra
Nevada mountains in the east - from the
forests of the northwest, to the Mojave
Desert areas in the southeast. The center of
the state is dominated by Central
Valley, a major agricultural area. California
contains both the highest and lowest points in the
United States (Mount
Whitney and Death
Valley), and has the 3rd
longest coastline of all states (after Alaska
Earthquakes are a common occurrence due to the state's
location along the Pacific
Ring of Fire: about 37,000 are recorded annually.
name California once referred to a large
area of North America claimed by Spain that included
much of modern-day Southwestern United States and
California peninsula. Beginning in the late
18th century, the area known as Alta
California, comprising the California territory
north of the Baja Peninsula, was colonized by the
Empire as part of New
Spain. In 1821, Alta California became a part
following its successful war for independence. Shortly
after the beginning of the Mexican-American
War in 1846, a group of American settlers in
declared an independent California
Republic in Alta California. Though its existence
was short-lived, its flag became the precursor for
California's current state flag. American victory
in the war led to the Treaty
of Guadalupe Hidalgo, in which Mexico ceded
Alta California to the United States. Western areas
of Alta California became the state of California,
which was admitted as the 31st
state on September 9, 1850.
Gold Rush beginning in 1848 led to dramatic
social and demographic change, with large scale
immigration from the U.S. and abroad and an accompanying
economic boom. Key developments in the early 20th
century included the emergence of Los Angeles as
the center of the American entertainment
industry, and the growth of a large, state-wide
tourism sector. The late 20th century saw the development
of the technology and information sectors, punctuated
by the growth of Silicon
Valley (part of the San
Francisco Bay Area). California's prosperous
agricultural industry also emerged; at least half
of the fresh fruit produced in the United States
are now cultivated in California, and the state
also leads in the production of vegetables.
Other important contributors to its economy include
aerospace, education, and manufacturing. If California
were a country, it would have the 8th
largest economy in the world
and it would be the 34th
most populous nation.
word California originally referred to the
entire region composed of the Baja
California peninsula of Mexico, the current
U.S. states of California, Nevada,
and parts of Arizona,
Mexico, and Wyoming.
name California is most commonly believed
to have derived from a fictional paradise peopled
and ruled by Queen Calafia.
The story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work
Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel
de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci
Rodríguez de Montalvo.
The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo,
was said to be a remote land inhabited by griffins
and other strange beasts, and rich in gold.
ye that at the right hand of the Indies there
is an island called California, very close to
that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, which was
inhabited by black women without a single man
among them, and they lived in the manner of Amazons.
They were robust of body with strong passionate
hearts and great virtue. The island itself is
one of the wildest in the world on account of
the bold and craggy rocks.
Chapter CLVII of The
Adventures of Esplandián
name California is the fifth oldest surviving
European place-name in the US and was applied to
what is now the southern tip of Baja California
peninsula as the Island
of California by a Spanish expedition led
by Diego de Becerra and Fortún
Ximénez, who landed there in 1533 at the behest
topographic map of California
view of the Pacific coast in Big
adjoins the Pacific Ocean to the west, Oregon
to the north, Nevada
to the east, and the Mexican
state of Baja
California to the south. With an area of 160,000
square miles (414,000 km2), it is
largest state in the United States in size,
If it were a country, California would be the 59th-largest
in the world in area.
the middle of the state lies the California
Central Valley, bounded by the coastal
mountain ranges in the west, the Sierra
Nevada to the east, the Cascade
Range in the north and the Tehachapi
Mountains in the south. The Central Valley is
California's agricultural heartland and grows approximately
one-third of the nation's food.
in two by the Sacramento-San
Joaquin River Delta, the northern portion, the
Valley serves as the watershed of the Sacramento
River, while the southern portion, the San
Joaquin Valley is the watershed for the San
Joaquin River; both areas derive their names
from the rivers that transit them. With dredging,
the Sacramento and the San Joaquin Rivers have remained
sufficiently deep that several inland cities are
Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta serves as a critical
water supply hub for the state. Water is routed
through an extensive network of canals and pumps
out of the delta, that traverse nearly the length
of the state, including the Central Valley Project
and the State Water Project. Water from the Delta
provides drinking water for nearly 23 million people,
almost two-thirds of the state's population, and
provides water to farmers on the west side of the
San Joaquin Valley. The Channel
Islands are located off the southern
Sierra Nevada (Spanish for "snowy range") includes
the highest peak in the contiguous
forty-eight states, Mount
Whitney, at 14,505 ft (4421 m).
The range embraces Yosemite
Valley, famous for its glacially carved domes,
National Park, home to the giant
sequoia trees, the largest living organisms
on Earth, and the deep freshwater lake, Lake
Tahoe, the largest lake in the state by volume.
the east of the Sierra Nevada are Owens
Valley and Mono
Lake, an essential migratory
bird habitat. In the western part of the state
Lake, the largest freshwater lake by area entirely
in California. Though Lake Tahoe is larger, it is
divided by the California/Nevada border. The Sierra
Nevada falls to Arctic temperatures in winter and
has several dozen small glaciers, including Palisade
Glacier, the southernmost glacier in the United
45 percent of the state's total surface area is
covered by forests,
and California's diversity of pine species is unmatched
by any other state. California contains more forestland
than any other state except Alaska. Many of the
trees in the California
White Mountains are the oldest in the world;
pine has an age of 4,700 years.
the south is a large inland salt lake, the Salton
Sea. The south-central desert is called the
to the northeast of the Mojave lies Death
Valley, which contains the lowest and hottest
place in North America, the Badwater
Basin at -282 feet (-86.0 m).
The horizontal distance from the nadir of Death
Valley to the summit of Mount Whitney is less than
90 miles (140 km). Indeed, almost all of southeastern
California is arid, hot desert, with routine extreme
high temperatures during the summer. The southeastern
border of California with Arizona is entirely formed
by the Colorado
River, from which the southern part of the state
gets about half of its water.
the California coast are several major metropolitan
areas, including Greater
Los Angeles Area, the San
Francisco Bay Area, and the San
Diego metropolitan area.
part of the Ring
of Fire, California is subject to tsunamis,
Ana winds, wildfires,
on steep terrain, and has several volcanoes.
It sees numerous earthquakes
due to several faults, in particular the San
on the mountains of California
climate varies from Mediterranean to subarctic.
of the state has a Mediterranean
climate, with cool, rainy winters and dry summers.
The cool California
Current offshore often creates summer fog
near the coast. Farther inland, one encounters colder
winters and hotter summers.
parts of the state average higher annual rainfall
than the south. California's mountain ranges influence
the climate as well: some of the rainiest parts
of the state are west-facing mountain slopes. Northwestern
California has a temperate
climate, and the Central Valley has a Mediterranean
climate but with greater temperature extremes than
the coast. The high mountains, including the Sierra
Nevada, have an alpine
climate with snow in winter and mild to moderate
heat in summer.
east side of California's mountains produce a rain
shadow, creating expansive deserts.
The higher elevation deserts of eastern
California see hot summers and cold winters,
while the low deserts east of the southern California
mountains experience hot summers and nearly frostless
mild winters. Death
Valley, a desert with large expanses below sea
level, is considered the hottest location in North
America; the highest temperature in the Western
°F (57 °C),
was recorded there on July 10, 1913. The lowest
temperature in California was -45 °F in 1937 in
is one of the richest and most diverse parts of
the world, and includes some of the most endangered
ecological communities. California is part of the
ecozone and spans a number of terrestrial ecoregions.
large number of endemic
species includes relict
species, which have died out elsewhere, such as
the Catalina Ironwood (Lyonothamnus
floribundus). Many other endemics originated
through differentiation or adaptive
radiation, whereby multiple species develop
from a common ancestor to take advantage of diverse
ecological conditions such as the California lilac
Many California endemics have become endangered,
as urbanization, logging, overgrazing,
and the introduction of exotic
species have encroached on their habitat.
boasts several superlatives in its collection of
flora: the largest
trees, the tallest
trees, and the oldest
trees. California's native grasses are perennial
After European contact, these were generally replaced
species of European annual grasses; and, in
modern times, California's hills turn a characteristic
golden-brown in summer.
California has the greatest diversity of climate
and terrain, the state has six life zones which
are the lower Sonoran (desert); upper Sonoran (foothill
regions and some coastal lands), transition (coastal
areas and moist northeastern counties); and the
Canadian, Hudsonian, and Arctic Zones, comprising
the state's highest elevations.
life in the dry climate of the lower Sonoran zone
contains a diversity of native cactus, mesquite,
and paloverde. The Joshua
tree is found in the Mojave Desert. Flowering
plants include the dwarf desert poppy and a variety
cottonwood and valley
oak thrive in the Central Valley. The upper
Sonoran zone includes the chaparral belt, characterized
by forests of small shrubs, stunted trees, and herbaceous
and the California poppy (Eschscholzia
californica) - the state flower -
also flourish in this zone, along with the lupine,
more species of which occur here than anywhere else
in the world.
transition zone includes most of California's forests
with the redwood (Sequoia
sempervirens) and the "big tree" or giant sequoia
(Sequoia gigantea), among the oldest living things
on earth (some are said to have lived at least 4,000
broad-leaved maple, and Douglas-fir
also grow here. Forest floors are covered with swordfern,
and there are tickets of huckleberry,
elder, and wild currant. Characteristic wild flowers
include varieties of mariposa, tulip,
high elevations of the Canadian zone allow the Jeffrey
fir, and Lodgepole
Pine to thrive. Brushy areas are abundant with
the unique Sierra
puffball is also found here. Right below the
timeberline, in the Hudsonian zone, the whitebark,
foxtail, and silver pines grow. At about 10,500 ft
(3,200 m), begins the Arctic zone, a treeless region
whose flora include a number of wildflowers, including
buttercup, and alpine
plants that have been introduced to the state include
geranium, and Scotch
broom. The species that are federally classified
as endangered are the Contra
Costa wallflower, Antioch
Dunes evening primrose, Solano
Clemente Island larkspur, salt
marsh bird's beak, McDonald's
rock-cress, and Santa
Barbara Island Liveforever. As of December 1997 ,
85 plant species were listed as threatened or endangered.
the deserts of the lower Sonoran zone, the mammals
include the jackrabbit,
rat, squirrel, and opossum. Common birds include
the owl, roadrunner,
Wren, and various species of hawk. The area's
reptilian life include the sidewinder
tortoise, and horned
toad. The upper Sonoran zone boasts mammals
such as the antelope,
woodrat, and Ring-tailed
cat. Birds unique to this zone are the California
the transition zone, there are Colombian Black-tailed
elk. Reptiles such as the garter snakes and
rattlesnakes inhabit the zone. In addition, amphibians
such as the water
puppy and redwood
salamander are common too. Birds such as the
and hummingbird thrive here as well.
Canadian zone mammals include the Mountain
hare, and several species of chipmunks. Conspicuous
birds include the blue-fronted
chickadee. Sierra Hermit
ouzel, and Townsend's
Solitaire. As one ascends into the Hudsonian
zone, birds become scarcer. While the Sierra rosy
finch is the only bird native to the high Arctic
region, other bird species such as the hummingbird
Nutcracker. Principal mammals found in this
region include the Sierra coney, White-tailed
jackrabbit, and the Bighorn
Sheep. As of April 2003 ,
the Bighorn Sheep was listed as endangered by the
US Fish and Wildlife Service. The fauna found throughout
several zones are the mule
deer, coyote, mountain
Flicker, and several species of hawk and sparrow.
life in California thrives, from the state's mountain
lakes and streams to the rocky Pacific coastline.
Numerous trout species are found, among them rainbow,
Migratory species of salmon are common as well.
Deep-sea life forms include sea
and several types of whale. Native to the cliffs
of northern California are seals, sea lions, and
many types of shorebirds, including migratory species.
of April 2003, 118 California animals were on the
federal endangered list; 181 plants were listed
as endangered or threatened. Endangered animals
include the San
Joaquin kitfox, Point
Arena mountain beaver, Pacific
pocket mouse, Salt
Marsh Harvest Mouse, Morro
Bay kangaroo rat (and five other species of
kangaroo rat), Amargosa
Least Tern, California
Clemente sage sparrow, San Francisco garter
snake, five species of salamander, three species
of chub, and two species of pupfish. Eleven butterflies
are also endangered and two that are threatened
are on the federal list. Among threatened animals
are the coastal California
cutthroat trout, southern
sea otter, and Northern
Spotted Owl. California has a total of 290,821
acres (1,176.91 km2) of National
As of September 2010 ,
123 California animals were listed as either endangered
or threatened on the federal list provided by the
Fish & Wildlife Service.
Also, as of the same year ,
178 species of California plants were listed either
as endangered or threatened on this federal list.
vast majority of rivers in California are dammed
as part of two massive water projects: the Central
Valley Project, providing water to the agricultural
central valley, the California
State Water Project diverting water to from
northern to southern California. The state's coasts,
rivers, and other bodies of water are regulated
by the California
two most prominent rivers within California are
River and the San
Joaquin River, which drain the Central Valley
and the west slope of the Sierra Nevada and flow
to the Pacific Ocean through San
Francisco Bay. Several major tributaries feed
into the Sacramento and the San Joaquin, including
River, the Tuolumne
River, and the Feather
River and Salinas
River each drain portions of the California
coast, north and south of San Francisco Bay, respectively,
and the Eel river is the largest river in the state
to remain in its natural un-dammed state. The Mojave
River is the primary watercourse in the Mojave
Desert, and the Santa
Ana River drains much of the Transverse
Ranges as it bisects Southern California. Some
other important rivers are the Klamath
River and the Trinity
River in the far north coast, and the Colorado
River on the southeast border with Arizona.
by successive waves of arrivals during the last
10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally
and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian
North America; The Indigenous
peoples of California included more than 70
distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging
from large, settled populations living on the coast
to groups in the interior. California groups also
were diverse in their political organization with
bands, tribes, villages, and on the resource-rich
coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash,
Trade, intermarriage and military alliances fostered
many social and economic relationships among the
first European to explore the coast as far north
as the Russian
River was the Portuguese Juan
Rodríguez Cabrillo in 1542. Some 37 years later
English explorer Francis
Drake also explored and claimed an undefined
portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish
traders made unintended visits with the Manila
Galleons on their return trips from the Philippines
beginning in 1565.
Vizcaíno explored and mapped the coast of California
in 1602 for New
began setting up 21 California
Missions along the coast of what became known
California (Upper California), together with
small towns and presidios.
from Alaska established their largest settlement
in California, Fort
Ross, in 1812
Francisco harbor c. 1850. Between 1847 and 1870,
the population of San Francisco increased from
500 to 150,000
1821 the Mexican
War of Independence gave Mexico
(including California) independence from Spain;
for the next 25 years, Alta California remained
a remote northern province of the nation of Mexico.
ranches, or ranchos,
emerged as the dominant institutions of Mexican
California. After Mexican independence from Spain,
the chain of missions became the property of the
Mexican government and were secularized
The ranchos developed under ownership by Californios
(Spanish-speaking Californians) who had received
land grants, and traded cowhides and tallow with
in the 1820s, trappers and settlers from the U.S.
and Canada began to arrive in Northern California.
These new arrivals used the Siskiyou
Trail and Old
Spanish Trail to cross the rugged mountains
and harsh deserts surrounding California. In this
Russia explored the California coast and established
a trading post at Fort
1846 settlers rebelled against Mexican rule during
Flag Revolt. Afterwards, rebels raised the Bear
Flag (featuring a bear, a star, a red stripe
and the words "California Republic") at Sonoma.
The Republic's first and only president was William
who played a pivotal role during the Bear Flag Revolt.
California Republic was short lived; the same year
marked the outbreak of the Mexican-American
War (1846-1848). When Commodore John
D. Sloat of the United
States Navy sailed into Monterey
Bay and began the military occupation of California
by the United States, Northern California capitulated
in less than a month to the U.S. forces. After a
series of defensive battles in Southern
California, the Treaty
of Cahuenga was signed by the Californios
on January 13, 1847, securing American control in
of Guadalupe Hidalgo that ended the war, the
region was divided between Mexico and the U.S.;
the western territory of Alta California, was to
become the U.S. state of California, and Arizona,
and Utah became
U.S. Territories, while the lower region of California,
the Baja Peninsula, remained in the possession of
1848 the non-native population of California was
estimated to be no more than 15,000. After gold
was discovered, the population burgeoned with U.S.
citizens, Europeans and other immigrants during
the great California
Gold Rush. By 1854 over 300,000 settlers had
On September 9, 1850, as part of the Compromise
of 1850, California was admitted to the United
States undivided as a free
state, denying the expansion of slavery
to the Pacific Coast.
native population precipitously declined, above
all, from Eurasian diseases to which they had no
Like in other states, the native inhabitants were
forcefully removed from their lands by incoming
miners, ranchers, and farmers. And despite the fact
that California entered the union as a free state,
the "loitering or orphaned Indians" were de facto
enslaved by Mexican and Anglo-American masters under
the 1853 Act for the Government and Protection
There were several massacres in which hundreds of
indigenous people were killed. Between 1850 and
1860, California paid around 1.5 million dollars
(some 250,000 of which was reimbursed by the federal
to hire militias whose purpose was to protect settlers
from the indigenous populations. In subsequent decades,
the native population was placed in reservations
and rancherias, which were often very small and
isolated and lacked adequate natural resources or
funding from the government to sustain the populations
living on them.
As a result, the rise of California brought great
hardship for the native inhabitants. Several scholars
and Native American activists, including Benjamin
Madley and Ed
Castillo, have described the actions of the
California government as a genocide.
seat of government for California under Spanish
and later Mexican rule was located at Monterey
from 1777 until 1846.
In 1849 the Constitutional Convention was first
held there. Among the duties was the task of determining
the location for the new state capital. The first
legislative sessions were held in San
Jose (1850-1851). Subsequent locations included
(1852-1853), and nearby Benicia
(1853-1854); these locations eventually proved to
be inadequate as well. The capital has been located
with only a short break in 1861 when legislative
sessions were held in San Francisco due to flooding
travel between California and the rest of the continental
U.S. was time consuming and dangerous. A more direct
connection came in 1869 with the completion of the
Transcontinental Railroad through Donner
Pass in the Sierra Nevada mountains. Once completed,
hundreds of thousands of U.S. citizens came west,
where new Californians were discovering that land
in the state, if irrigated during the dry summer
months, was extremely well suited to fruit cultivation
and agriculture in general. Vast expanses of wheat,
other cereal crops, vegetable crops, cotton, and
nut and fruit trees were grown (including oranges
in Southern California), and the foundation was
laid for the state's prodigious agricultural production
in the Central Valley and elsewhere. The large earthquake
that hit San Francisco in 1906 devastated the city.
film studios, 1922
to California accelerated during the early-20th
century with the completion of major transcontinental
highways like the Lincoln
Highway and Route
66. In the period from 1900 to 1965, the population
grew from fewer than one million to become the most
populous state in the Union. In 1940, the Census
Bureau reported California's population as 6.0%
Hispanic, 2.4% Asian, and 89.5% non-Hispanic white.
San Francisco earthquake and 1928 St.
Francis Dam flood remain the deadliest in U.S
order to meet the population's needs, major engineering
feats like the California
Angeles Aqueducts; the Oroville
Dams; and the Bay
Gate Bridges were built across the state. The
state government also adopted the California
Master Plan for Higher Education in 1960 to
develop a highly efficient system of public education.
attracted to the mild Mediterranean climate, cheap
land, and the state's wide variety of geography,
filmmakers established the studio
system in Hollywood in the 1920s. A couple of
decades later, Stanford
University and its Dean of Engineering Frederick
Terman began encouraging faculty and graduates
to stay in California instead of leaving the state,
and develop a high-tech region in the area now known
As a result of these efforts, California is currently
regarded as a world center of the entertainment
and music industries, of technology, engineering,
and the aerospace industry, and as the U.S. center
of agricultural production. Just before the "Dot
Com Bust" California had the 5th largest economy
in the world among nations.
California, as of 2002US
Department of Defense had,
California, as of 2000military
service: 504,010 served in World War II, 301,034
in the Korean
War, 754,682 during the Vietnam
War, and 278,003 during 1990-2000 (including
the Persian Gulf War).
there were 2,569,340 veterans of US
military forces consist of the Army
and Air National Guard, the naval
and state military reserve (militia), and the
culture of California is a Western culture and most
clearly has its modern roots in the culture
of the United States, but also, historically,
influences. As a border and coastal state, Californian
culture has been greatly influenced by several large
immigrant populations, especially those from Latin
has long been a subject of interest in the public
mind and has often been promoted by its boosters
as a kind of paradise. In the early 20th century,
fueled by the efforts of state and local boosters,
many Americans saw the Golden State as an ideal
resort destination, sunny and dry all year round
with easy access to the ocean and mountains. In
the 1960s, popular music groups such as The
Beach Boys promoted the image of Californians
as laid-back, tanned beach-goers.
Gold Rush of the 1850s is still seen as a symbol
of California's economic style, which tends to generate
technology, social, entertainment, and economic
fads and booms and related busts.[citation
largest religious denominations by number of adherents
as a percentage of California's population in 2008
were the Catholic Church with 31 percent; Evangelical
Protestants with 18 percent; and Mainline Protestants
with 14 percent. Those unaffiliated with any religion
represented 21 percent of the population.
The American Jewish Yearbook placed the total Jewish
population of California at about 1,194,190 in 2006.
first priests to come to California were Roman Catholic
missionaries from Spain. Roman Catholics founded
missions along the California coast, as well
as the cities of Los Angeles and San Francisco.
California continues to have a large Roman Catholic
population due to the large numbers of Mexicans
and Central Americans living within its borders.
California has twelve dioceses and two archdioceses,
of Los Angeles and the Archdiocese
of San Francisco, the former being the largest
archdiocese in the United States.
Research Center survey revealed that California
is somewhat less religious than the rest of the
US: 62 percent of Californians say they are "absolutely
certain" of the belief in God, while in the nation
71 percent say so. The survey also revealed 48 percent
of Californians say religion is "very important,"
compared to 56 percent nationally.
Domestic Product of California by sector for
economy of California is large enough to be comparable
to that of the largest of countries. FY 2011gross
state product (GSP) is about $1.96 trillion,
the largest in the United States.
California is responsible for 13.1 percent of the
United States' $14.96 trillion gross domestic product
(GDP). California's GDP is larger than that of all
but 8 countries in dollar terms (the United
Kingdom, and Italy).
It's larger than the GDPs of Russia,
In terms of Purchasing
it's larger than all but 9 countries (the United
States, China, India, Japan, Germany, Russia, Brazil,
France, the United Kingdom, Italy), larger than
Korea, Spain, Canada, and Turkey.,
terms of jobs, the five largest sectors in California
are trade, transportation, and utilities; government;
professional and business services; education and
health services; and leisure and hospitality. In
terms of output, the five largest sectors are financial
services, followed by trade, transportation, and
utilities; education and health services; government;
currently has the 3rd highest unemployment
rate in the nation at 9.8% as of November 2012 .
economy is very dependent on trade and international
related commerce accounts for approximately one-quarter
of the state's economy. In 2008, California exported
$144 billion worth of goods, up from $134 billion
in 2007 and $127 billion in 2006.
Computers and electronic products are California's
top export, accounting for 42 percent of all the
state's exports in 2008.
is an important sector in California's economy.
Farming-related sales more than quadrupled over
the past three decades, from $7.3 billion in 1974
to nearly $31 billion in 2004.
This increase has occurred despite a 15 percent
decline in acreage devoted to farming during the
period, and water supply suffering from chronic
instability. Factors contributing to the growth
in sales-per-acre include more intensive use of
active farmlands and technological improvements
in crop production.
In 2008, California's 81,500 farms and ranches generated
$36.2 billion products revenue.
capita GDP in 2007 was $38,956, ranking eleventh
in the nation.
capita income varies widely by geographic region
and profession. The Central Valley is the most impoverished,
farm workers making less than minimum
wage. Recently, the San
Joaquin Valley was characterized as one of the
most economically depressed regions in the U.S.,
on par with the region of Appalachia.
Many coastal cities include some of the wealthiest
per-capita areas in the U.S. The high-technology
sectors in Northern California, specifically Silicon
Valley, in Santa
Clara and San
Mateo counties, have emerged from the economic
downturn caused by the dot-com
2010, there were more than 663,000 millionaires
in the state, more than any other state in the nation.
it is the most populous U.S. state, California is
one of the country's largest users of energy. However
because of its mild weather and strong environmental
movement, its per capita energy use is one
of the smallest of any U.S. state.
Due to the high electricity demand, California imports
more electricity than any other state, primarily
hydroelectric power from states in the Pacific Northwest
15 and Path
66) and coal- and natural gas-fired production
from the desert Southwest via Path
a result of the state's strong environmental movement,
California has the some of the most aggressive renewable
energy goals in the United States, with a target
for California to obtain a third of its electricity
from renewables by 2020.
Currently, several solar
power plants such as the Solar
Energy Generating Systems facility are located
in the Mojave
wind farms include Altamont
Gorgonio Pass, and Tehachapi
Pass. Several dams across the state provide
state's crude oil and natural gas deposits are located
in the Central Valley and along the coast, including
the large Midway-Sunset
Oil Field. Natural gas-fired power
plants typically account for more than one-half
of State electricity generation.
is also home to two major nuclear
power plants: Diablo
Canyon and San
Onofre. However, voters banned the approval
of new nuclear power plants since the late 1970s
because of concerns over radioactive
waste disposal. In addition, several cities
such as Oakland, Berkeley
have declared themselves as nuclear-free
vast terrain is connected by an extensive system
highways ('freeways'), limited-access
roads ('expressways'), and highways. California
is known for its car
culture, giving California's cities a reputation
for severe traffic
congestion. Construction and maintenance of
state roads and statewide transportation planning
are primarily the responsibility of the California
Department of Transportation, nicknamed "Caltrans".
The rapidly growing population of the state is straining
all of its transportation networks, and California
has some of the worst roads in the United States.
The Reason Foundation's 19th Annual Report on the
Performance of State Highway Systems ranked California's
highways the third-worst of any state, with Alaska
second, and Rhode Island first.
state has been a pioneer in road construction. One
of the state's more visible landmarks, the Golden
Gate Bridge, was once the longest
suspension bridge main span in the world at
4,200 feet (1,300 m) when it opened in 1937.
With its orange paint and panoramic views of the
bay, this highway bridge is a popular tourist attraction
and also accommodates pedestrians and bicyclists.
Francisco - Oakland Bay Bridge (often abbreviated
the "Bay Bridge"), completed in 1936, transports
approximately 280,000 vehicles per day on two-decks.
Its two sections meet at Yerba
Buena Island through the world's largest diameter
transportation bore tunnel, at 76 feet (23 m)
wide by 58 feet (18 m) high.
Seco Parkway, connecting Los Angeles and Pasadena,
opened in 1940 as the first freeway in the Western
It was later extended south to the Four
Level Interchange in downtown Los Angeles, regarded
as the first stack
interchange ever built.
Angeles International Airport (the
6th busiest airport in the world) and San
Francisco International Airport (the
21th busiest airport in the world) are major
hubs for trans-Pacific and transcontinental traffic.
There are about a dozen important commercial airports
and many more general
throughout the state.
also has several important seaports.
The giant seaport complex formed by the Port
of Los Angeles and the Port
of Long Beach in Southern California is the
largest in the country and responsible for handling
about a fourth of all container cargo traffic in
the United States. The Port
of Oakland, fourth largest in the nation, also
handles trade entering from the Pacific Rim to the
rest of the country.
Highway Patrol is the largest statewide police
agency in the United States in terms of employment
with over 10,000 employees. They are responsible
for providing any police-sanctioned service to anyone
on California's state maintained highways and on
California Department of Motor Vehicles is by far
the largest in North America. By the end of 2009,
the California DMV had 26,555,006 driver's licenses
and ID cards on file.
In 2010, there were 1.17 million new vehicle registrations
rail travel is provided by Amtrak
California, which manages the three busiest
intercity rail lines in the U.S. outside the Northeast
Corridor, all of which are funded by Caltrans.
This service is becoming increasingly popular over
flying and ridership is continuing to set records,
especially on the LAX-SFO route.
rail networks are found in Los Angeles (Metro
Rail) and San Francisco (MUNI
Metro). Light rail systems are also found in
San Jose (VTA),
San Diego (San
Diego Trolley), Sacramento (RT
Light Rail), and Northern San Diego County (Sprinter).
rail networks serve the San Francisco Bay Area
Greater Los Angeles (Metrolink),
and San Diego County (Coaster).
High-Speed Rail Authority was created in 1996
by the state to implement an extensive 700 mile
(1127 km) rail system. Construction was approved
by the voters during the November 2008 general election,
a $9.95 billion state bond will go toward its construction.
Nearly all counties operate bus
lines, and many cities operate their own city bus
lines as well. Intercity bus travel is provided
and Amtrak Thruway Coach.
March 2011, California ranked as a top BEST state
in the American State Litter Scorecard for overall
effectiveness and quality of its public space cleanliness
- primarily roadway litter - from state and related
debris removal efforts.
interconnected water system is the world's largest,
managing over 40,000,000 acre feet of water per
year, centered on six main systems of aqueducts
and infrastructure projects.
Water use and conservation in California is a politically
divisive issue, as state experiences periodic droughts
and has to balance the demands of its large agricultural
and urban sectors, especially in the arid southern
portion of the state. The state's widespread redistribution
of water also invites the frequent scorn of environmentalists.
Water Wars, a struggle between Los Angeles and
the Owens Valley for water rights, is one of the
most well-known examples of the lengths people will
go to in order to secure adequate water supplies.
Former California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger
said: "We've been in crisis for quite some time
because we're now 38 million people and not anymore
18 million people like we were in the late 60s.
So it developed into a battle between environmentalists
and farmers and between the south and the north
and between rural and urban. And everyone has been
fighting for the last four decades about water."
is governed as a republic, with three branches
of government - the executive
branch consisting of the Governor
and the other independently elected constitutional
officers; the legislative
branch consisting of the Assembly
and the judicial
branch consisting of the Supreme
Court of California and lower courts
of California. The state also allows direct
participation of the electorate by initiative,
California allows each political party to choose
whether to have a closed
primary or a primary where only party members
vote. The state's capital is Sacramento.
Governor of California and the other state constitutional
officers serve four-year terms and may be re-elected
only once. The California
State Legislature consists of a 40-member Senate
and 80-member Assembly. Senators serve four-year
terms and Assembly members two. Members of the Assembly
are subject to term
limits of three terms, and members of the Senate
are subject to term limits of two terms.
legal system is explicitly based upon English common
(as is the case with all other states except Louisiana)
but carries a few features from Spanish civil
law, such as community
punishment is a legal form of punishment and
the state has the largest "Death
Row" population in the country (though Texas
is far more active in carrying out executions).
California's "Death Row" is in San
Quentin State Prison situated north of San Francisco
County. Executions in California are currently
on hold indefinitely as human rights issues are
population grew from 25,000 in 1980 to over
170,000 in 2007.
is the largest in the United States (with a total
of 1,600 judges, while the federal system has only
about 840). It is supervised by the seven Justices
of the Supreme
Court of California. Justices of the Supreme
Court and Courts of Appeal are appointed by the
Governor, but are subject to retention by the electorate
every 12 years.
towns and counties
state's local government is divided into 58 counties
and 482 incorporated
cities and towns; of which 460 are cities and 22
are towns. Under California law, the terms "city"
and "town" are explicitly interchangeable; the name
of an incorporated municipality in the state can
either be "City of (Name)" or "Town of (Name)".
became California's first incorporated city on February
Jose, San Diego and Benicia
tied for California's second incorporated city,
each receiving incorporation on March 27, 1850.
Valley became the state's most recent and 482nd
incorporated municipality on July 1, 2011.
majority of these cities and towns are within one
of five metropolitan
areas. Sixty-eight percent of California's population
lives in its three largest metropolitan areas, Greater
Los Angeles Area, the San
Francisco Bay Area, and the Riverside-San
needed] Although smaller, the
other two large population centers are the San
Diego and Greater
Sacramento metro areas.
state recognizes two kinds of cities: charter
and general law.
General law cities owe their existence to state
law and are consequentially governed by it; charter
cities are governed by their own city charters.
Cities incorporated in the 19th century tend to
be charter cities. All ten of the state's most populous
cities are charter cities.
High School is one of the oldest high schools
in continuous use in California and a popular
location for television and motion picture production
education consists of high
schools that teach elective courses in trades,
languages, and liberal arts with tracks for gifted,
college-bound and industrial arts students. California's
public educational system is supported by a unique
constitutional amendment that requires a minimum
annual funding level for grades K-12 and community
colleges that grows with the economy and student
had over 6.2 million school students in the 2005-06
school year. Funding and staffing levels in California
schools lag behind other states. In expenditure
per pupil, California ranked 29th (of the 50 states
and the District
of Columbia) in 2005-06. In teaching staff expenditure
per pupil, California ranked 49th of 51. In overall
teacher-pupil ratio, California was also 49th, with
21 students per teacher. Only Arizona and Utah were
2007 study concluded that California's public school
system was "broken".
education offers a unique three tiered system:
research university system in the state is the
of California (UC), a public
university system. There are ten general UC
campuses, and a number of specialized campuses
in the UC system. The system was intended to accept
the top 10% of California high school students,
but under severe budget restrictions, this has
since been diminishing. The UC system was originally
given direct authority in awarding Ph.Ds, but
this has since changed several years ago, California's
Master Plan for Higher Education granting the
CSU to award several Doctoral degrees.
State University (CSU) system has almost 430,000
students, making it the largest university system
in the United States. CSU was intended to accept
the top one-third of high school students, but
under severe budget woes and record amount of
applications, this has since changed. The CSU
originally began as an educational system primarily
intended for undergraduate education, but has
since changed under California's Master Plan for
Higher Education. The CSU has been granted the
authority to award an ample amount of Doctoral
Community Colleges System provides lower division
coursework as well as basic skills and workforce
training. It is the largest network of higher
education in the US, composed of 112 colleges
serving a student population of over 2.6 million.
is also home to such notable private universities
University, the University
of Southern California, the California
Institute of Technology, and the Claremont
Colleges. California has hundreds of other private
colleges and universities, including many religious
and special-purpose institutions.
State of California is the only US state to have
hosted both the Summer
and Winter Olympics. The 1932
Summer Olympics were held in Los Angeles. Squaw
Valley Ski Resort in the Lake Tahoe region hosted
Winter Olympics. Multiple games during the 1994
FIFA World Cup took place in California, with
Bowl in Pasadena hosting eight matches including
Stadium in Palo Alto hosted six matches.
has nineteen major
professional sports league franchises, far more
than any other state. The San
Francisco Bay Area has seven major league teams
spread in its three major cities: San Francisco,
San Jose, and Oakland. While the Greater Los Angeles
Area is home to ten major league franchises, it
is also the largest metropolitan area not to have
a team from the National
Football League. San Diego has two major league
teams, and Sacramento has one. The NFL Super
Bowl has been hosted in California 11 times
at four different stadiums: Los
Angeles Memorial Coliseum, the Rose Bowl, Stanford
Stadium, and San Diego's Qualcomm
to some of the most prominent universities in the
United States, California has long had many respected
collegiate sports programs. California is home to
the oldest college bowl game, the annual Rose
Bowl, among others.
has also long been a hub for motorsports and auto
racing. The city of Long Beach holds an event every
year in the month of April, which is host to IndyCar
Series racing through the streets of downtown.
Long Beach has hosted Formula
One events there in the past, and also currently
hosts an event on the American
Le Mans Series schedule. Auto
Club Speedway is a speedway in Fontana, and
currently hosts one to two NASCAR
Sprint Cup Series races a year, and used to host
Indycar races. Infineon
Raceway in Sonoma is a multi-purpose facility,
featuring a road course and a drag strip. The road
course is home to a NASCAR event, an IndyCar
event, and used to host an International
Motor Sports Association sports car event. The
drag strip hosts a yearly NHRA
Raceway Laguna Seca is a roadcourse that currently
hosts an ALMS event, and formerly hosted CART events.
Club Raceway at Pomona has hosted NHRA drag
racing for over 50 years.
is a list of major sports teams in California:
honest answer is the sign of true friendship."
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