EMPLOYMENT LAW TRAINING, EMPLOYMENT LAW TRAINING COURSES, EMPLOYMENT LAW COURSES ONLINE, EMPLOYMENT LAW, EMPLOYMENT LAW SEMINARS, Employment Law Courses, Employment Law Training Course, Employment Law Training for HR Professionals, Employment Law Training Seminars, HR Training and Development, HR Training Courses, FMLA, ADA, EEO,, FSLA, HIPPA

Improving On-The-Job Performance And Skills. Reducing Litigation Risks.
Since 1979
Employment Law Training Seminars, Certification, ONLINE Employment Law Training, DVD Training Classes, In-House Training, AUDIO Training, Teleconferences


Training HR

Institute for Applied
Management & Law, Inc.

450 Newport Center Drive, Suite 390
Newport Beach, California 92660

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NOTE: The information and notices contained on this website are intended as general research and information and are expressly not intended, and should not be regarded, as medical, financial or legal advice. The articles are from free sources.

This Business was Awarded

Best in Business

Orange County CA, Visit: OrangeCountyCA

"Many employers are working their employees harder, not smarter.
- David Coates"

"The magic formula that successful businesses have discovered is to
treat customers like guests and
employees like people.
--Thomas J. Peters"

"In the end, all business operations
can be reduced to three words: people, product and profits. Unless you've got a good team, you can't do much with the other two. --Lee Iacocca"






Welcome To
Employment Law Training and HR Training

IAML is the nation's leading producer of comprehensive employment law seminars.

Learn Amazing Skills, While Reducing Litigation Risks

Prominent employment law attorneys and popular IAML instructors, Raymond M. Deeny (left) Partner, Sherman & Howard; John F. Wymer, III (second from left), Partner, Paul, Hastings, Janofsky & Walker; and Gavin S. Appleby (second from right), Partner, Littler Mendelson; with Robert M. Lee (center), Executive Director, IAML; and Eric E. Jackson, President, IAML (far right).

IAML Seminars: For more than 38 years, IAML's sole focus has been to produce the finest, most current and practically-oriented training programs.
We are proud of our reputation, which is based on:

Improves your on-the-job performance and skills...immediately.
Providing virtually all the information needed to function effectively in the employment law aspect of a job.
Increasing your confidence in dealing with complex employee relations law issues.
Helps participants to deal more pro-actively with employee relations law issues.
Enable participants to take concrete and specific actions to substantially reduce their organization's downside risk to expensive, time-consuming and risky litigation.
Increasing the participant's value to their organization. Provides participants with an excellent environment to meet colleagues and share ideas.
Earns full program participants a widely recognized and respected certificate credential.


"Absolutely the best training I have ever attended. Ray Deeny is a fabulous instructor. His cutting edge knowledge and information made learning fun. Time flew by, left me wanting more." Gary Sackman Vice President, Human Resources W & W Steel, LLC Oklahoma City, Oklahoma


Click on the seminar title for detailed information.


The definitive seminar in the employment law field since 1979. Practical, effective, completely current and comprehensive...professionally rewarding and stimulating. Extensive materials and truly outstanding faculty of prominent employment law attorneys who are also excellent presenters. Rigorous, thorough...and enjoyable.

Irvine          March 4-8, 2013            Newport Beach            July 29-August 2, 2013


This 4 1/2 day seminar provides a comprehensive foundation in critical human resource subjects including and employment law overview; how to cope-complying with the legal requirements; hiring strategies; training; and compensation practices. Designed for both novice and experienced HR professionals. Terrific faculty.

Irvine       March 4-8, 2013 Newport Beach July 29-August 2, 2013

This highly rated 4 1/2 day seminar provides state-of-the-art best practices for employee benefits professionals. Current, practically-oriented and detailed information. Outstanding faculty, extensive materials. Indispensable training for the benefits professional.

Newport Beach July 29-August 2, 2013



Law Training

Certificate In Employee

of HR



Certificate In

Law Seminar


If the below show pictures are not coming up please "click here"

The Certificate in Employee Relations Law Seminar is the original, proven seminar that has been presented many hundreds of times since 1979. This is a practical, professionally prepared and presented program which covers all facets of employment law.

Nearly every past attendee said their participation in the program was worth the time and investment.
More than 99% of past participants say this program improved their professional performance on-the-job.
95% of past participants say the Certificate in Employee Relations Law Seminar is better than other programs of its type.
On a scale of 1 to 5, with 5 being the highest possible ranking, the average evaluation of the faculty has been 4.7.


Seminar Structure
The Certificate in Employee Relations Law Seminar is comprised of three "blocks" of instruction which are presented over 4 1/2 consecutive days. Participants are encouraged to register for the entire program however, registrations for only one or two of the blocks are accepted.

Practical Information for On the Job Applications
All instruction and reference materials were developed so they can be applied in the everyday workplace. Participants learn the requirements of laws and regulations and how to deal with them in their own organizations.

Extensive Materials
The seminar reference materials (about 1,000 pages) are specially prepared for this seminar and are completely current. The materials are provided to participants during the seminar and serve as valuable desktop reference manuals on the job.

Certificate Awarded
The Certificate in Employee Relations Law is awarded when a participant attends all three blocks of the seminar. No examinations are given. These engraved certificates are mailed two to four weeks after the end of each program. NOTE: If you complete only one or two blocks you can still receive a certificate if you complete the remaining block or blocks within a two year period. All blocks need not be completed at the same location.

Renowned Instructors
All seminar block leaders are nationally renowned employment law attorneys from leading law firms who have extraordinary legal backgrounds, extensive practical experience and a demonstrated ability to teach the material in an interesting manner.

Personal Interaction
Faculty members encourage questions from participants. All your questions will be answered during the ample time provided during sessions, at breaks, lunches and after the sessions. The collegial atmosphere fosters the sharing of ideas and experiences among participants.

Enhanced Career Performance
Participants tell us that this program improves on-the-job effectiveness, and increases capacity for career growth.


REVIEWS & Testimonials:
What People are Saying About Our Employment Law Training ...


"I was extremely happy with the presenters. The information exceeded my expectations and the other participants were very helpful in sharing their experiences. I signed up for this course after researching 'human resources training' on the Internet. I reviewed a lot of different training programs and determined the information on your website was the most thorough and comprehensive." Teresa Malekzadeh Executive Director John F. Font PhD & Associates San Jose, California


"Di Ann Sanchez was extremely dynamic in her presentation skills and seemed to take a vested interest in our learning the information. I was very impressed with her background and appreciated hearing her personal experiences which help to bring the information to life!" Ashley Heird Senior Human Resources Manager Bloomin' Brands Tampa, Florida


"Both instructors were very informative and presented very well. The knowledge I gained was great and the interaction was outstanding. Well worth the time and money." Alan J. Rasmussen Regional Association Relations Manager Big Lots, Inc. Denver, Colorado


"This was an interesting approach. I am used to formal presentations, with audience dialogue and questions. The use of case studies generated a lot of discussion. I also enjoyed that Mr. Wymer encouraged audience participation and allowed us to arrive at the answers instead of just answering the questions for us." Liz Forchione Human Resources Generalist CommDoc, Inc. Uniontown, Ohio


"Absolutely the best training I have ever attended. Ray Deeny is a fabulous instructor. His cutting edge knowledge and information made learning fun. Time flew by, left me wanting more." Gary Sackman Vice President, Human Resources W & W Steel, LLC Oklahoma City, Oklahoma


"IAML instructors bring real world knowledge and experience to the subject and make the sessions informative and fun." Anthony Pipitone Vice President, Finance & Administration Center City District Philadelphia, Pennsylvania


"Great class structure. Loved the case studies and group interaction. Relevant and engaging. Also liked the law updates and legal perspective." Christy Richards HR Service Partner Mayo Clinic Rochester Rochester, Minnesota


"We covered a lot of material. Really enjoyed mixing up in groups and hearing how other companies handle a particular situation. Interesting and insightful." Judith M. Shorter, PHR Sr. Human Resources Generalist Purdue Research Foundation Lafayette, Indiana


"Gavin and Cindy's knowledge is overwhelming - their ability to get participants fully engaged is amazing. I was so thrilled with the workshop that half-way through I called my general manager and thanked her for allowing me to attend. A truly professional workshop conducted with high standards and expertise. Postively one of the best workshops I've ever attended, worth every minute away from the office." Shani Dues Human Resources Consultant Pooling Resources, Inc. Las Vegas, Nevada


"I really enjoyed the seminar. I learned a great deal and will definitely be able to apply what I learned once I'm back in the office." Alana Tomczyszyn Human Resources Generalist II CWS Capital Partners LLC Austin, Texas


"I always enjoy this seminar. It really means alot to fully trust the information that I receive from these wonderful instructors. We as HR professionals are very fortunate for their participation in IAML programs!" Sharon Moran Senior Benefits Administrator Salt River Materials Group Clarkdale, Arizona


Recent Clients For In-house Training Include:
American Express
Atlas Pacific Engineering
Beckman Coulter, Inc.
Clark County, Nevada
DENTSPLY International, Inc.
Human Resources Association of Central Missouri
JM Family Enterprises
Johnson & Johnson, ASP
Kirby Corporation
Lewis County General Hospital
Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Co.
Los Alamos National Laboratory
Neutrogena Corporation
Northrop Grumman
Origen Financial LLC
Reddy Ice, Inc.
Sandia National Laboratory
Starz Entertainment
STP Nuclear Operating Co.
The Home Depot
Time Warner Cable
UBS Investment Bank
UnitedHealth Group
Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.
Zurich North America
Some organizations have sponsored more than 100 employees and many have made this seminar mandatory or part of their regular training plan. We encourage you to review the partial list of participating organizations:
24 Hour Fitness Worldwide Inc.
3 Rivers Communications
A.R.E. Accessories LLC
AAA Mid-Atlantic
Abacus Technology Corporation
Abbe Inc.
Abbott Laboratories
Access Business Group
ACE Cash Express, Inc.
Activision Blizzard, Inc.
Acuren USA, Inc.
Acushnet Company
Adams County School District 14
Adelphi University
ADESA Corporation
Adidas Group
Advanstar Communications, Inc.
Advocate Health Care
Aerospace Corporation
AES Corporation
Affinion Group LLC
Affinity Group, Inc.
Agri Beef Co.
AHMC Healthcare
Aircraft Service International Group

Akeela, Inc.
Alamo Colleges
Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium
Alaska Permanent Fund Corp.
Alaska Waste
Alco Management, Inc.
Alfa Insurance Company
Alliance Imaging, Inc.
Allina Health System
Alpha Coal West, Inc.
Alpha Natural Resources
Alpha Packaging
Alta Bates Summit Medical Center
Alyeska Pipeline Service Co.
Amber Energy
American Association for the Advancement of Science
American Baptist Homes of the Midwest
American BOA
American Cancer Society, Inc.
American Dehydrated Foods, Inc.
American Eagle Outfitters, Inc.
American Express
American Family Insurance
American Honda Motor Company
American International Group (AIG)
American Proteins, Inc.
American Showa
American University
AmeriGas Propane Company Ameripath, Inc.
Ameriprise Financial Inc.
Ameristar Casino, Inc.
Amerisure Mutual Insurance Co.
AMI Semiconductor
Amway Corporation
Amylin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Amy's Kitchen
Ancilla Domini Sisters, Inc.
Androscoggin Valley Hospital
Angel of the Winds Casino
Anne Arundel Medical Center
Antelope Valley Hospital
Apple Inc.
Applied Minds, LLC
Aramark Corporation
Arbitration Forums, Inc.
ArcelorMittal USA
Arctec Alaska
Arctic Slope Native Corporation
Aris Horticulture, Inc.
Arizona Public Service Co. (APS)
Arizona State University
Army & Air Force Exchange Service
Art Institute of Portland
Arvato Services
Arvest Bank Group
ArvinMeritor, Inc.
Asahi Kasei Plastics North America
Ascendum Solutions LLC
Aspen Insurance
Aspen Medical Products
Associated Wholesale Grocers, Inc.
Association of Christian Schools International
Assurant Inc.
Assurant Solutions
Assurant Specialty Property
Astellas Pharma US, Inc.
AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP
Atlanta Public Schools
Atlas Pacific Engineering
Atlas Roofing Corporation
Attachmate Corporation
Atwood Oceanics, Inc.
Aurora Health Care
Automobile Club of Southern California
Avago Technologies
Avalere Health, LLC
Aviation Communication & Surveillance Systems, LLC
Avon Products
Awarepoint Corporation B/E
Aerospace, Inc.
Bacardi U.S.A.
BAE Systems
Bain & Company
Baker & McKenzie, LLP
Baker Concrete Construction
Baker Hughes Ball Corporation
Banner Health
Baptist Health South Florida
Barksdale Control Products
Barney & Barney, LLC
Barrick Cortez
Barrick Gold of North America, Inc.
Barrick Goldstrike Mines Inc.
Bar-S Foods
Base Technologies, Inc.
Bashas' Inc.
Batesville Casket Company
Battelle Energy Alliance
Baxter Healthcare Corporation
Bay Area Hospital
Bay Medical Center
BayCare Health Systems
Bayer MaterialScience
Baylor College of Medicine
BBA Aviation Shared Services, Inc. Beachbody
Bechtel Corporation
Bechtel National, Inc.
Bechtel Systems & Infrastructure, Inc.
Beckman Coulter, Inc.
Bed Bath & Beyond, Inc.
Bemis Company, Inc.
Bentley University
Benton Public Utilities District
Berkowitz Dick Pollack & Brant
BET Networks
Betaseed, Inc.
Bethesda Lutheran Homes & Services
BHP Billiton
Bible League International
BIC Advertising Promotional Products
Big Lots, Inc.
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Billy Graham Evangelistic Association
Biotest Pharmaceuticals Corp.
BJ's Bingo
Black Butte Coal Company
Black Hills Federal Credit Union
Blandin Foundation
Blood Alliance
Bloomin' Brands
Blount, Inc.
Blue Ridge Electric Membership Corp.
BlueShield of Illinois
BlueShield of Massachusetts
BlueCross BlueShield of Tennessee
Boar's Head Provisions Co., Inc. Boehringer Ingelheim Corporation
Boeing Company
Boot Hill Casino & Resort
Booz Allen Hamilton
Borough of North Slope
Boston Private Bank & Trust
Boston Properties Inc
Bovie Medical Corporation
Boyd Gaming Corporation
Brand Energy & Infrastructure Services
Braun Electric Company
BRE Properties, Inc.
BreitBurn Management Company, LLC
Bremner Food Group
Briggs & Stratton Corporation
Bristol Hospital
Broadcom Corporation
Brookhaven National Laboratory
Brownstein Hyatt Farber Schreck, LLP
Bryan Cave Powell Goldstein LLP
Buccaneer, a General Dynamics Company Buchanan Street Partners
Buckeye Partners, L.P.
Buckeye Technologies, Inc.
Buckskin Mining Company
Burgess-Norton Manufacturing
Buy Buy Baby Inc.
C. Martin Company
C.R. Bard, Inc.
CACI International
Calibre Systems, Inc.
California Institute of Technology
California State University at Fresno
California State University at San Marcos
CalsonicKansei North America, Inc. Calvin College
Cambia Health Solutions
Canon Business Solutions
Canon ITS, Inc.
Canon USA, Inc.
Capital Group Companies, Inc.
Caraustar Industries Inc.
Carboline Company
Carefirst BlueCross BlueShield Cargotec Holding Inc.
Carlisle FoodService Products
Carlson Companies Inc.
Cash America International, Inc. Cassidy Turley
Catalent Pharma Solutions
Catholic Diocese of Arlington
CB & I
CDM Resource Management
CDM Smith Inc.
CDS Global
CEC Entertainment, Inc.
Celanese Chemical Co. Inc.
Celebrity Cruises
Centegra Health System
Center City District
Central Arizona College
Central Garden & Pet Company
Central Hudson Gas & Electric
Centura Health
Ceridian Corporation
Cerner Corporation
Cessna Aircraft Company
CH2M HILL Companies, Ltd.
Champion Technologies
Chapel Valley Landscape Co.
Chapman Freeborn Airchartering Inc.
Charles G. Koch
Charitable Foundation
Charter School of San Diego
Checks Unlimited
Cheesecake Factory, Inc.
Chelan County Public Utilities District
Chenega Corporation
Chesapeake Energy Corporation
Chetco Federal Credit Union
Cheyenne Regional Medical Center
Chickasaw Nation
Chico's FAS, Inc.
Children's Hospital Boston
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Children's Hospital of the King's Daughters
Christ Fellowship
Christiana Care Health System
Chubb & Son, Inc.
Chubb Corporation
Chubb Group of Insurance Companies
CIBA Corporation
Cintas Corporation
Cisco Systems, Inc.
CITGO Petroleum Corporation
CitiTrends, Inc.
Citizens Energy Group
Citizens Property Insurance Corp.
City of Alexandria
City of Bethel
City of Birmingham
City of Bloomfield
City of Boise
City of Dothan
City of Fort Worth
City of Hope National Medical Center
City of Irvine
City of Kennewick
City of Killeen
City of Lakewood
City of Las Vegas
City of Longmont
City of Meridian
City of Overland Park
City of Racine
City of Rockwall
City of Stillwater
City of Tacoma
City of Vancouver
City of Washington DC
Clarian Health
Clean Harbors Environmental Services, Inc.
Clear Channel Communications, Inc.
Clearwater Paper Corporation
Cleco Corporation
Cleveland Clinic
Cloud Peak Energy
CNH America
Coastal Forest Resources Co.
Coca-Cola Bottling Co. Consolidated
Coca-Cola Bottling Company United
Coca-Cola Company
Coca-Cola Refreshments USA, Inc.
Coeur Alaska, Inc.
Coffee Regional Medical Center
Colgate-Palmolive Company
Colonial Pipeline Company
Colorado College
Comcast Cable Communications
ComDoc, Inc.
Commerce Bank
Commonwealth Credit Union
Commonwealth of Massachusetts Community Health Services, Inc.
CompBenefits Corporation
CompHealth Associates, Inc.
Computer Services Inc.
Compuware Corporation
CONSOL Energy Inc.
Consolidated Diesel Company
Constant Care Management Co.
Constellation Brands, Inc.
Constellation Wines
Continental Automotive Systems US Inc.
Cook Inlet Native Head Start
CoreLogic, Inc.
Cornerstone Chemical Company
Cornerstone OnDemand
Corporate One Federal Credit Union
Corporation Service Co.
Corrections Corporation of America
Costco Wholesale Corporation
County of Campbell
County of Chatham
County of Clallam
County of Clark
County of Cook
County of Dona Ana
County of Fairfax
County of Gwinnett
County of Johnson
County of Lake
County of Lewis
County of Orange
County of Palm Beach
County of Pinellas
County of Polk
County of Salt Lake
County of San Juan
County of Teton
County of Wake
County of Washoe
County of Weber
Coventry Health Care, Inc.
Cowles Publishing Company
Cox Communications
Cracker Barrel Old Country Store, Inc.
Crane Composites, Inc.
Crawford Supply Group
Credit Union of Ohio
CREOKS Behavioral Health Services
Crescent Healthcare, Inc.
Critical Mass
Crowe Horwath LLP
Crum & Forster
CSM Bakery Products
Cumberland Gulf Group of Companies
Cuyahoga Community College
CWS Capital Partners LLC
Dako North America
Dakota Growers Pasta Company
Dakota State University
Dallas Fort Worth International Airport
Damon G. Douglas Company
Darden Restaurants, Inc.
Dartmouth College
Davidson Companies
DaVita, Inc.
Day & Zimmermann
Day & Zimmermann
Hawthorne Corp.
DB Schenker
Decker Coal
Deere & Company
Defender Direct
Defense Intelligence Agency
Del Monte Foods Company
DeLaval Inc.
Delnor-Community Hospital
Deloitte & Touche, LLP
Deloitte Development LLC
Delta Dental of Oklahoma
Deluxe Laboratories, Inc.
Denbury Resources Inc.
Denison Industries
DENSO Manufacturing
Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation
Dermpath Diagnostics
Des Moines University
Deseret Mutual Benefits Administrators
Detroit Medical Center
Deutsch Industrial US
Developmental Disability Resource Center
DFA of California
Dialysis Clinic Inc.
Diamond Wire Materials Technology
Dignity Health
Direct General Corporation
Disabled American Veterans
Discover Financial Services
Diversity Training Group
Dixie Regional Medical Center
DLA Piper, Rudnick, Gray, Cary
Doe Run Company
Dollar General Corporation
Dominion Resources
Domtar Paper Company, LLC
Donahoe Risk Management
Doosan Infracore International Inc.
Dow Corning Corporation
Dowden Health Media
Doyon Ltd.
Doyon Remote Facilites & Services, LLC
Drummond Company Inc.
DSW Inc.
Ducommun AeroStructures, Inc.
Duke Endowment
Duke Energy Corporation
Duke University
Dunham & Associates Investment Council, Inc.
Duro Bag
DVA Federal Credit Union
Dyno Nobel Inc.
E2E Resources, Inc.
EADS North America
East Texas CareTeam, Inc.
Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians
Eastman Chemical Company
Eaton Corp.
Eaton Vance Management, Inc.
eBay Inc.
Eberline Services Hanford, Inc.
EchoStar Technologies L.L.C.
Eckart America
Eclipsys Corporation
Edgerton & Weaver, LLP
Edison Mission
Edison Mission Operations & Maintenance
Education Management Corporation
Education Services Foundation
Educational Employees Credit Union
Edward Hospital & Health Services
Edwards & Associates, Inc.
Edwards Companies
Edwards Lifesciences Corporation
eHarmony.com, Inc.
Election Systems & Software
EMC Corporation
EMD Millipore
Emerald Queen Hotel & Casinos
Empire Today, LLC
EMW Energy Northwest
Epson America, Inc.
Equity Office Properties Trust
Erickson Retirement Communities
Erlanger Health System
Ernst & Young, LLP
ESPN Essential Power, LLC
Estee Lauder Companies
Evergreen Packaging
Evergreen State College
Evonik Corporation
Expro Americas Inc.
Extra Space Storage

Fagen Friedman & Fulfrost LLC
Fairbanks Native Association
Fairmount Long Term Care/PNH
Faith Farm Ministries
Family First Federal Credit Union
Famous Recipe Operations Inc.
Farm Credit Bank of Texas
Farm Credit Services of Mid-America
Feather River Hospital
Federal Credit Union
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
Federal Express
Federal Home Loan Bank of Indianapolis
Federal Reserve Bank, Atlanta
Federal Reserve Bank, Boston
Federal Reserve Bank, Dallas
Federal Reserve Bank, New Yor
k Federal Reserve Bank, San Francisco
Federal Reserve Board
Federal-Mogul Corporation
Federated Mutual Insurance Co.
FedEx Express
Fedex Office & Print Services, Inc.
FedEx Services
Fibre Federal Credit Union
Fidelity Bank
Fifth Third Bank
Firelands Regional Medical Center
First Data Corporation
First Federal Savings & Loan
First Financial Corporation
First Midwest Bank
First Republic Bank
First Solar, Inc.
Fiserv, Inc.
Fisher Communications, Inc.
Fisher-Price Inc.
Five Star Credit Union
Flathead Electric Cooperative
Flint Hills Resources
Florida Power & Light
Florida State University
Fluor Corporation
FMC Technologies, Inc.
Follett Corporation
Forest Laboratories Inc.
Forest Lawn Memorial-Parks & Mortuaries
FosterThomas, Inc.
Foundation Surgery Affiliates
Franz Family Bakeries
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold
Friendly Ice Cream Corporation
Frito-Lay, Inc.
FrontRange Solutions Inc.
Frost Bank FTI Consulting, Inc.
G4S Integrated Services, Inc.
G4S Secure Solutions (USA), Inc.
GAF Corporation
Garden of Life
Gartner, Inc.
Gatan, Inc.
Gaylord Entertainment
Gaylord Opryland Resort & Convention
GEICO Corporation
General Atomics Aeronautical Systems
General Dynamics General
Dynamics Advanced Information Systems
General Dynamics C4 Systems
General Dynamics Information Technology
General Dynamics SATCOM Technologies
General Electric
General Growth Properties
General Mills, Inc.
General Moly, Inc.
General Motors Corporation
Genesis HealthCare Systems
George Mason University
Georgetown University Hospital
Georgia Power Co.
Georgia Southern University
Georgia State University
Gerdau AmeriSteel Corporation
Giant Food Stores Inc.
Gila River Gaming Enterprises, Inc.
Gilead Sciences, Inc.
Giles Electric Company, Inc.
Gonzaga University

Goodrich Aerostructures Group
Goodrich Corporation
Grace Pacific Corporation
Grant Thornton LLP
Graphic Packaging International, Inc.
Graybar Services, Inc.
Greater Hudson Bank
Greater Phoenix Economic Council
Great-West Life & Annuity Insurance Co.
Greystar Real Estate Partners
Grosvenor Capital Management, LP
Group Voyagers, Inc.
Guaranteed Rate, Inc.
Guidance Software, Inc.
Guilford County Schools
Gulfstream Aerospace Corp.
Gypsum North America
H & R Block Inc.
H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute
H.E.B. Grocery Company
Hahnemann University Hospital
Hallmark Capital Group, LLC
Hannaford Bros. Co.
Harley-Davidson Motor Company
Harrah's Cherokee Casino
Harris N.A. Hawkeye Valley Area Agency on Aging
Hayes Lemmerz International
HCA Inc.
HCA Shared Services
HCC Insurance Holdings
Health Alliance
Health Management Resources Corp.
Health Management Systems
Health Net, Inc.
Hecla Mining Company
Helzberg Diamonds
Hemlock Semiconductor Group
Hendrickson USA, L.L.C.
Henkel Corporation
Henry M. Jackson Foundation
Heraeus Inc.
Herman Miller, Inc.

Highmark, Inc.
Hillenbrand Industries
Hilton Hotels Corporation
Hinds Hospice
HiT Entertainment
Hitachi America Ltd.
Hitachi Automotive Systems Americas, Inc.
Hitachi Consulting Corporation
HM Insurance Group
HNTB Holland America Line
Home Box Office
Home Depot, Inc.
Honda R&D Americas, Inc.
Honeywell Safety Products
Hoosier Park Racing & Casino
Hornbeck Offshore Services, Inc.
Hotel Whitcomb
Howard University
HR Textron, Inc.
HSB Group, Inc.
HSBC - North America
HSC Pediatric Center
Humana Inc.
Hunter Fan Co.
Huntington Hospital
Huntington Ingalls Industries, Inc.
Hunton & Williams
Hurley Medical Center
Huttig Building Products
Hyundai Motor America
Ibis Golf & Country Club
ICF International, Inc.
Idaho National Engineering & Environmental Laboratory
Idaho Power Company
Idahoan Foods
IDEX Corporation
IDEXX Laboratories Inc.
iGATE Americas Inc.
Illinois Action for Children
IMA Financial Group
Imperial Sugar Company
Indiana Insurance Company
Indiana State University
Indianapolis Power & Light Company
Inergy Automotive Systems USA
Infinity Pharmaceuticals
Ingersoll-Rand Company
Inglis Foundation
Ingram Industries Inc.
Ingram Micro
Inland Empire Hospital Services Association
Innophos Instinet, LLC
Institute of Public Administration, Saudi Arabia
Integra Lifesciences Holding Corp.
Integrated DNA Technologies, Inc.
Intel Corporation
Intelsat, Ltd.
InterContinental Hotels Group
Intermountain Healthcare
Intermountain Power Service Corp. International Paper
International Transportation Services
Ion Media Networks
Iron Mountain, Inc.
Irving Oil Limited
Isle of Capri Casinos Inc.
J. Craig Venter Institute
J.R. Simplot Company
Jabil Circuit, Inc.
Jackson National Life Insurance Co.
Jacobs Technology Inc.
Janssen Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical
JasperSoft Corporation
Jefferson Regional Medical Center
JM Eagle, Inc.
JM Family Enterprises
Jo-Ann Fabric & Craft Stores
John Crane Inc.
John Deere Company
John Deere Landscapes
John Hancock Financial Services, Inc.
John Hancock Life Insurance
John Zink Company, LLC
Johns Hopkins Medicine
Johns Hopkins University
Johnson & Johnson
Johnson Controls Inc.
Jones Lang LaSalle Incorporated
Jorge Scientific Corporation
Jos. A. Bank Clothiers, Inc.
JPMorgan Chase & Co.
JPMorgan Chase Bank, NA JT3 LLC
Juneau Alliance for Mental Health, Inc.
Kadant Black Clawson
Kaiser Permanente
Kaneka North America LLC
Katz, Teller, Brant & Hild
Kaweah Delta Health Care District
Kellogg Company
Kelly Services
Kennametal Inc.
Kennewick General Hospital
Kensington Gold Mine
Kent Intermediate School District
Kentucky Employers' Mutual Insurance
Ketchikan Indian Community
Kiewit Mining Group
Kimberly-Clark Corporation
Kinder Morgan
King Soopers Inc.
Klein Tools, Inc.
Kleinfelder, Inc.
Knowledge Learning Corporation
Knowledge Universe
Koch Business Solutions
Koch Fertilizer, LLC
Koch Heat Transfer Company, LP
Koch Industries, Inc.
Koch Mineral Services LLC
Koch Pipeline Company LP
Kodiak Area Native Association
Komatsu America Corporation
Konecranes, Inc.
Koppers Inc.
Kraft Foods Inc.
Kroenke Sports Enterprises
Kroger Company
Kroger Vandervoort Dairy
Kyocera Mita South Carolina, Inc. L-3 Communications
L-3 Vertex Aerospace
LabOne, Inc.
Lackland Air Force Base
Laclede Gas Company
Lafarge Corporation
Lakeside Foods, Inc.
Lambeth House
Lancaster General Health
Lancer Corporation
LandAmerica Financial Group, Inc.
Lane Bryant
Las Vegas Valley Water District
Leader Tech, Inc.
Lego Systems, Inc.
Lehigh Hanson, Inc.
Lehigh Southwest Cement Co.
LG Constructors
Liberty Bank
Liberty Media Corporation
Liberty Mutual Group, Inc.
Lifetime Healthcare Companies
Lifeway Christian Resources
Limited Brands
Lincoln Financial Media
Little Blue Valley Sewer District
LM Glasfiber
LM Wind Power Blades Inc.
Lockheed Federal Credit Union
Lockheed Martin Corporation
Lockheed Martin Missiles & Fire Control
LogistiCare Solutions, LLC
Loomis Los Alamos National Laboratory
Los Angeles County Metro Transit Authority Louisiana Tech University
Lowe's Companies, Inc.
Lowry Hill
Loyola College in Maryland
Loyola University Maryland
LVMH Fashion Group America
LYNX M. Davis & Sons
Mack Energy Company
Magic Aire
Maniilaq Association
Mannington Commercial
Mantech International
Marathon Oil Corporation
Marine Corps Community Services
Market Strategies International
Marriott International, Inc.
Mars, Incorporated
Mary E. Bivins Foundation
Masco Corporation
Masonite Corporation
Massimo Zanetti Beverage USA
MassMutual Financial Group
Mattel, Inc.
Mayo Clinic, Rochester
Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale
McCain Foods USA, Inc.
McConnell Valdes LLC
McDonough Bolyard Peck, Inc.
McKee Foods Corporation
McKesson Corporation
McLane Company, Inc.
McNeil Technologies
MDU Resources Group, Inc.
Meadowbrook Insurance Group
Medrad, Inc.
MedStar Health
Mercedes-Benz USA, LLC
Merchant Link, LLC
Mericle Commercial Real Estate
Meritage Homes
Merrill Lynch
Methodist Healthcare
Methodist Hospital of Southern California
Methodist LeBonheur Healthcare
Metropolitan Life Insurance Co (Metlife)
Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County
Michelman, Inc.
Michigan Technological University
Micrel, Incorporated
Microsoft Corporation
Mid-Atlantic Permanente Medical Group
Midway Hotel Center
Midwest Bank & Trust
Midwestern University
Mille Lacs Band Corporate Commission
MillerCoors LLC
Minitab Inc.
Mission Regional
Medical Center
Mission Support Alliance
Mitsubishi Electric/Electronics USA
MKB Technology
MMM Healthcare Inc.
MOBIS Mohegan Sun Casino
Molex Incorporated
Moneytree, Inc.
Monitor Liability
Managers, LLC
Monsanto Company
Montana State University
Montgomery County Hospital District
Morehead State University
Morgan Borszcz Consulting
Morrison & Foerster, LLP
Mortan Plant
Mease Healthcare
Mortgage Network, Inc.
Motor Coach Industries International Inc.
MRW Group
MullinTBG, a Prudential Financial Company
Municipality of Anchorage

Murphy Oil Corporation
Muscatine Power & Water
Mutual of Omaha
NANA Management Services
NANA/Colt Engineeering
Nathan Adelson Hospice
National Association of Insurance Commissioners
National Dentex Corporation
National Education Association
National Electrical Contractors Association
National Gypsum Company
National Institute of Standards & Technology
National Jewish Health
National Marine Manufacturers Association
National Retail Systems
National Security Technologies
Nationwide Insurance
Native Americans for Community Action
Navajo Nation
Naval Research Laboratory
Navigators Group, Inc.
Navigators Management Company
Navy Federal Credit Union
NBC Universal, Inc.
Neighborhood House Association
Nemours Foundation
Nestle Purina PetCare
Nestle USA NetJets Inc.
Nevada State Bank
New York State Nurses Association
New York State United Teachers
Newmont Mining Corporation
Nigeria LNG Limited
NIKE, Inc.
NMB (USA), Inc.
Noble Group
Nordstrom, Inc.
North American Energy Services
North American Stainless
North East Utilities Service Co.
North Middlesex Regional School District
NorthBay Healthcare System
Northeast Utilities
Northern Maine Medical Center
Northern Panhandle Head Start Inc.
Northrop Grumman
Northstar Behavioral Health Services
Northwestern Energy Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Co.
Nova Southeastern University
Novartis, Alcon Division
Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc.
Nutramax Laboratories, Inc.
NXStage Medical Inc.
Oberto Sausage Company
Oberweis Dairy Inc.
Ocean Properties, Limited
OfficeMax, Inc.
OGE Energy Corporation
Ogletree Deakins Nash Smoak & Stewart
O'Hare Airport Transit Systems, Inc.
Ohio State University
Ohio Valley Community Credit Union
Oklahoma Gas & Electric
Old Line Bank Oldcastle APG West, Inc.
Olin Corporation
Omidyar Network
Omni Hotels
On Command Corporation
Onyx Acceptance Corporation
OPEIU Healthcare
Operating Engineers Local 825
OPW Fueling Components

Orange County Transportation Authority
Orbital Sciences Corporation
Oreck Corporation
Oregon Health & Science University
Orlando Health
Orlando Utilities Commission
Owens Corning
P & H MinePro
Pacific Life Insurance Co.
Pacific Power
Packaging Corporation of America
Panda Restaurant Group, Inc.
Panera Bread
Papa Murphy's International, Inc.
Parallon Business Solutions, LLC
PAREXEL International Corporation

Park Water Company
Parker Hannifin Corporation
Parkland Health & Hospital System
Partners Community HealthCare
Partners HealthCare System
Patton Boggs, LLP
Payless ShoeSource, Inc.
PC Connection, Inc.
Pearson, Inc.
Pechanga Resort & Casino
Pend Orielle Mine
Penn National Gaming Inc.
Pennsylvania State University
Pepco Holdings, Inc.
Perkins Coie, LLP
Perot Systems Corporation
Perspectives Corporation
Petrobras America, Inc. Pfizer Inc.
PGT Industries Pharmaceutical
Product Development (PPD)
Philadelphia Gas Works
Pike Electric, Inc.
PJM Interconnection, LLC
Plainfield Municipal Utilities Authority
Plews & Edelmann
Plexus Corp.
Plow & Hearth
PNM Resources, Inc.
Polish & Slavic Federal Credit Union
PolyOne Corporation
Pooling Resources, Inc.
Port of Seattle
Portland Clinic
Portland Community College
Portland General Electric Co.
Portland State University
Ports America
Potawatomi Bingo Casino
Power House Resources International, Inc
Power-One, Inc.
Prairie Knights Casino
Praxair, Inc.
Precision Drilling Oilfield Services
Premera Blue Cross
Premier, Inc.
Preti Flaherty Beliveau
Pachios & Haley LLP
PreVisor PRGX Global, Inc.
Priceline.com Inc.
Prince George's County Public Schools
Princess Cruises
Printing House, Ltd.
PRO Sports Club
Procter & Gamble
Prosteel Proteus, Inc.
Provision Ministry Group
Prudential Financial, Inc.
Prudential Insurance Company of America Prudential Retirement
PSCU Financial Services
PSEG Incorporated
Public Service Company of New Hampshire Purdue Research Foundation
Purdue University
PurEnergy L.L.C.
QinetiQ North America Operations LLC
Quadra FNX Mining Ltd.
Quanex Building Products Corporation
Quartz Corporation
Quest Diagnostics
Questar Corporation
Quintiles Transnational Corp.
QVC Network
R.L. Polk & Co.
Radia Medical Imaging
Radian Group Inc.
Radiation Therapy Services, Inc.
Ralcorp Holdings, Inc.
Ralph Lauren Corporation
Raymond James & Associates, Inc.
Raytheon Company
RBS Group Reality Check Systems
Red Bull North America Inc.
Redwood Credit Union
Regal Beloit Corporation
Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Regional Transportation District
Reinhart Food Service
Renal Ventures Management, LLC
RES-Americas, Inc.
Restaurants Unlimited
Rexnord Corporation
Reyes Holdings LLC
Richmond Redevelopment & Housing Authority
Rio Tinto Risk Strategies Company
River Valley Bank Road & Rail Services, Inc
. Robert Bosch Corporation
Robins, Kaplan, Miller & Ciresi, LLP
Roche Molecular Diagnostics
Rochester Laborers' Welfare Fund
Rockland Federal Credit Union
Rockwell Collins, Inc.
Rome Research Corporation
Roxcomp Community Health Center
Royal Credit Union
Royal Gold, Inc.
RT Communications, Inc.
Ruiz Foods Russell Pacific LLC
Safe Credit Union
SAFECO Corporation
Safety-Kleen Systems, Inc.
Salt River Materials Group
Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community
Salt River Project
Salvation Army
Samaritan's Purse
Samson Investment Company
San Francisco Public Utilities Commission
Sandia National Laboratories
Santa Margarita Water District
Sargent & Lundy, LLC
Saudi Telecom Company
Save-A-Lot Food Stores, Inc.

Scholastic Book Fairs
Schreiber Foods, Inc.
Scottsdale Healthcare Corporation
Scripps Health
Seattle Public Library
Seattle Radiologists
Sebris Busto James
Securities & Exchange Commission Nigeria
Sedgwick Claims Management
SEGA of America, Inc.
SEIU Local 1000
Selective HR Solutions
Semtech Corporation
Sentry Insurance Company
ServiceMaster Company
SES Engineering
Shaw Industries Group, Inc.
Sheffield Plastics
Sheridan Memorial Hospital
Sherman Health
Shire Pharmaceuticals
Shook Hardy & Bacon
Shurtape Technologies, LLC
Siemens Corporation
Siemens Energy & Automation
Siemens Energy Service
Siemens Power Generation
Signature Flight Support
Simon Property Group, Inc.
Sinclair Oil Corporation
Sky Bank
Smith & Nephew, Inc.
Smithfield Foods, Inc.
Smithfield Packing Co., Inc.
SNC-Lavalin Constructors, Inc.
Snohomish County PUD 1
SOC Nevada, LLC
Social Security Administration
Society of Counsel Representing Accused Persons
Society of Manufacturing Engineers
Sodexo Inc.
Sonoco Products Company
South Bend Medical Foundation
South Florida Water Management District
South Peninsula Hospital, Inc.
Southboro Medical Group
SouthEast Alaska Regional Health Consortium
Southeast Toyota Distributors, LLC
Southeastern Freight Lines, Inc.
Southern California Edison Company
Southern Company Services
Southern Illinois University
Southern Ute Indian Tribe
Southwest Gas Corporation
Southwest Power Pool
Southwestern Energy Company
Space Coast Credit Union
Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX)
Space Telescope
Science Institute
Specialty Laboratories
Spectra Energy
Spirit Mountain Gaming, Inc.
Sports Authority
Sprint Corporation
SRA International
St. Francis Hospital
St. John's Regional Medical Center
St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
St. Jude Medical
St. Louis Convention & Visitors Commission
St. Louis Science Center
St. Margaret's Health
St. Mary Medical Center
St. Regis Mohawk Tribe
Starz Entertainment, LLC
Starz Media, LLC
State Farm Insurance Companies
State of Alaska
State of Connecticut
State of Georgia
State of Maryland
State of Montana
State of New Mexico
State of North Dakota
State of South Dakota
State of Utah
State of West Virginia
Stew Leonard's
Stillwater Mining Company

StoneRiver, Inc.
Stony Brook University
Stormont-Vail HealthCare
STP Nuclear Operating Company
Stryker Corporation
Sun Life Financial
Sun National Bank
Sun Orchard
Sun Products Corporation
Suncoast Hotel & Casino
Sunpower, Inc.
Sunshine Makers, Inc.
SunTrust Banks, Inc.
Superior Essex
Supermetal Structures
Swarovski Jewelry U.S. Ltd.
Swarthmore College
Swedish Match North America, Inc.
Swinerton Incorporated
Symcor, Inc.
Symetra Financial
Syngenta Crop Protection, Inc.
Synthes (USA)
Sypris Solutions
Syracuse University
SYSCO Corporation
T. Rowe Price Group, Inc.
Talbots, Inc.
Tate & Lyle North America, Inc.
Tatitlek Corporation
Taylor English Duma LLP
TCF Financial
TD Bank Financial
TE Connectivity Tech Data Corporation
Teck Cominco American
TEES Personnel Services
Telerx Marketing, Inc.
TeleTech Holdings, Inc.
Tenneco, Inc.
Tennessee Valley Federal Credit Union
Tensar Corp
Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis
Tesoro Refining & Marketing Co.
TESSCO Technologies
Texas A & M University
Texas Adjutant General's Department/Texas Military Forces
Texas Forest Service
Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc.
Thk Rhythm North America Co., Ltd.
Thrivent Financial for Lutherans
TIB/The Independent BankersBank
TIC-The Industrial Company Wyoming
Time Warner Cable
TJX Companies, Inc.
T-Mobile USA, Inc.
Torqued-Up Energy Services
Torrance Community Credit Union
Totem Ocean
Trailer Express
Toyota Engineering & Manufacturing NA
Toyota Material Handling USA
Toyota Motor Sales, USA, Inc.
Toys 'R' Us, Inc.
Tractor Supply Company
Travelers Insurance Co.
Trident Refit Facility
Trinidad Drilling, LP
Triumph Aerostructures Vought Aircraft Division
TriWest Healthcare Alliance
Tropicana Products, Inc.
TRW Automotive
Tufts Associated Health Plans, Inc.
Tulalip Tribes
Tulsa Community College
Tyler Independent School District
Tyson Foods, Inc.
US Army
US Customs & Border Protection
US Department of Commerce
US Department of Energy
US Department of Health & Human Services
US Department of Interior
US Department of State
US Department of Treasury
US Department of Veterans Affairs
US Fish & Wildlife Service
US House of Representatives
US Marine Corps
UBS Global Asset Management
UBS Investment Bank
UDR, Inc.
UMB Financial Corporation
Under Armour, Inc.
Union Hospital, Inc.
Union Telephone Company
UniSea, Inc.
United Nations Federal Credit Union
United Online, Inc.
United Parcel Service (UPS)
United States Bakery
United States Steel Corporation
Universal Orlando
University Corporation for Atmospheric Research
University Health Associates
University HealthSystem Consortium
University Hospitals University of Akron University of Alaska University of Albany, SUNY
University of California, San Diego
University of Central Missouri
University of Cincinnati
University of Delaware
University of Guam
University of Hartford
University of Kansas
University of Massachusetts at Lowell
University of Miami
University of North Texas
University of North Texas Health Science Center
University of Oregon
University of Richmond
University of Southern California
University of St. Thomas
University of Washington
University of Wyoming
UNUMProvident Corporation
Urban Ministries
URS Corporation
USAA Real Estate Company
Utah State University
V & M Star
V & M USA Corporation
Valencia College
Valero Energy Corporation
Valley Federal Credit Union
Valley TeleCom Group
Vallourec North America
VanCott, Bagley, Cornwall & McCarthy
Vangent, Inc., a General Dynamics Company
Vanguard Group, Inc.
Varco International, Inc.
Varnum LLP
Vectren Corporation
Veolia Environmental Solutions
Veridian Credit Union
Verizon Wireless, Inc.
VF Corporation
VHA Inc.
Viejas Enterprises
Vinmar International, Ltd.
Virginia Credit Union
Virginia Hospital Center
Visa International
Vision Net, Inc.
VMware, Inc.
Volvo Construction Equipment, NA
W & W Steel, LLC
Wabash National Corporation
Wacker Polysilicon North America
WakeMed Health & Hospitals
Warner Bros.
Warner Norcross & Judd LLP
Washington Closure Hanford, Inc.
Washington Real Estate Investment Trust
Washington River Protection Solutions
Washington Savannah River Co.
Washington State Bar Association
Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine
Waste Management, Inc.
WAWA, Inc.
WCM Industries, Inc.
WebVisible, Inc.
Wegmans Food Markets
WellPoint Inc.
Wells Enterprises, Inc.
Wells Fargo
Wentworth Institute of Technology
Wesleyan University
West Virginia University Hospitals
West Virginia University Medical Corp.
Westar Energy, Inc.
Western & Southern Financial Group
Western & Southern Life Insurance Co.
Western Digital Corporation
Western Energy Company
Western Mesquite Mines Inc.
Western Michigan University
Western Refining Company
Western Union Weyerhaeuser
Wharton-Smith, Inc.
White Earth Tribal & Community College
William H. Harvey
Williams Companies, Inc.
Windstream Communications
Woodgrain Millwork, Inc.
Woods Equipment Company
Workrite Uniform Company, Inc.
World Omni Financial Corp.
World Vision International
Worthington Industries, Inc.
WPX Energy
Wright Medical
WSI Wyndham Vacation Ownership
Xcel Energy
XO Communications
Yamaha Corporation of America Young Life
Zadhry Industrial Inc.
Zep Inc.
Zippo Manufacturing
Zondervan Zotos International, Inc.
Zurich North America

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United States labor law is a heterogeneous collection of state and federal laws. Federal law not only sets the standards that govern workers' rights to organize in the private sector, but also overrides most state and local laws that attempt to regulate this area. Federal law also provides more limited rights for employees of the federal government. These federal laws do not apply to employees of state and local governments, agricultural workers or domestic employees; any statutory protections those workers have derived from state law.

The pattern is even more mixed in the area of wages and working conditions. Federal law establishes minimum wages and overtime rights for most workers in the private and public sectors; state and local laws may provide more expansive rights. Similarly, federal law provides minimum workplace safety standards, but allows the states to take over those responsibilities and to provide more stringent standards.

Finally, both federal and state laws protect workers from employment discrimination. In most areas these two bodies of law overlap; as an example, federal law permits states to enact their own statutes barring discrimination on the basis of race, gender, religion, national origin and age, so long as the state law does not provide less protections than federal law would. Federal law, on the other hand, preempts most state statutes that would bar employers from discriminating against employees to prevent them from obtaining pensions or other benefits or retaliating against them for asserting those rights.

The United States Congress has not ratified the International Labour Organization Convention on the Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organize Convention, 1948 or the Right to Organize and Collective Bargaining Convention, 1949.


Employment law in the US has traditionally been governed by the common law rule of "at-will employment," meaning that an employment relationship could be terminated by either party at any time without a reason. This is still true today in most states. However, starting in 1941, a series of laws prohibited certain discriminatory firings. That is, in most states, absent an express contractual provision to the contrary, an employer can still fire an employee for no or any reason, as long as it isn't an illegal reason (which includes a violation of public policy).

In 1941, Executive Order 8802 (or the Fair Employment Act) became the first law to prohibit racial discrimination, although it only applied to the national defense industry. Later laws include Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (and amendments), Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, and numerous state laws with additional protections. The Fair Labor Standards Act regulates minimum wages and overtime pay for certain employees who work more than 40 hours in a work week.

While working an employee must work a minimum of two hours in a day. Cases of employment discrimination in the United States are most often subject to the jurisdiction of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, the federal commission responsible for the enforcement of the anti-discrimination laws. Once a case has been filed with the EEOC or similar state agencies with concurrent jurisdiction, employees have a right to remove the case to the courts with the permission of the agency, or in some instances, after the expiration of a set time period. Employment law cases are heard in state or federal courts, depending upon the issue, the size of the employer (the Civil Rights Act of 1964, for example, applies only to employers with 15 or more employees), and the litigation strategy of the plaintiff.

Regulation of unions and organizing

Contrary to popular intent, the Sherman Antitrust Act (1890) led to prosecution of unions as illegal combinations, but Section 6 of the Clayton Antitrust Act (1914) ended this practice by stipulating that unions shall not be "construed to be illegal combinations or conspiracies in restraint of trade, under the antitrust laws."

The National Labor Relations Act (NLRA, the "Wagner Act") gives private sector workers the right to choose whether they wish to be represented by a union and establishes the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) to hold elections for that purpose. As originally enacted in 1935, the NLRA makes it illegal for employers to discriminate against workers because of their union membership or retaliate against them for engaging in organizing campaigns or other "concerted activities", to form "company unions", or to refuse to engage in collective bargaining with the union that represents their employees.

The Taft-Hartley Act (also the "Labor-Management Relations Act"), passed in 1947, loosened some of the restrictions on employers, changed NLRB election procedures, and added a number of new limitations on unions. The Act, among other things, prohibits jurisdictional strikes and secondary boycotts by unions, and authorizes individual states to pass "right-to-work laws", regulates pension and other benefit plans established by unions and provides that federal courts have jurisdiction to enforce collective bargaining agreements.

The United States Congress subsequently tightened those restrictions on unions in the Labor Management Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1959, which also regulates the internal affairs of all private sector unions, providing for minimum standards for unions' internal disciplinary proceedings, federal oversight for unions' elections of their own officers, and fiduciary standards for union officers' use of union funds. Congress has since expanded the NLRB's jurisdiction to health care institutions, with unique rules governing organizing and strikes against those employers.

The NLRA does not, on the other hand, cover governmental employees, with the exception of employees of the United States Postal Service, a quasi-public entity. The Federal Labor Relations Act provides for much more limited rights for employees of the federal government; Congress has, moreover, excluded a number of these workers in the United States Department of Homeland Security and elsewhere from even these limited protections.In order to keep up with the most recent versions to be in compliance with federal labor law, employees could get more detailed information by reading the federal labor law poster , which is required to be posted in the company.

Federal law does not provide employees of state and local governments with the right to organize or engage in union activities, except to the extent that the United States Constitution protects their rights to freedom of speech and freedom of association. The Constitution provides even less protection for governmental employees' right to engage in collective bargaining: while it bars public employers from retaliating against employees for forming a union, it does not require those employers to recognize that union, much less bargain with it.

Most states provide public employees with limited statutory protections; a few permit public employees to strike in support of their demands in some circumstances. Some states, however, particularly in the South, make it illegal for a governmental entity to enter into a collective bargaining agreement with a union.

The NLRA does not cover agricultural or domestic employees. A few states have enacted labor laws similar to the NLRA covering farm workers.

Finally, the NLRA does not cover employees in the railroad and airline industries. Those workers are covered by the Railway Labor Act, first passed in 1926, then amended in 1936 to cover airline employees. The RLA creates a wholly different structure for resolving labor disputes, requiring bargaining under indirect governmental supervision and permitting strikes only in limited circumstances.

The Norris-LaGuardia Act of 1932 outlawed the issuance of injunctions in labor disputes by federal courts. While the Act does not prevent state courts from issuing injunctions, it ended what some observers called "government by injunction", in which the federal courts used injunctions to prevent unions from striking, organizing and, in some cases, even talking to workers or entering certain parts of a state. Roughly half the states have enacted their own version of the Norris-LaGuardia Act.

For the most part the NLRA and RLA displace state laws that attempt to regulate the right to organize, to strike and to engage in collective bargaining. The NLRB has exclusive jurisdiction to determine whether an employer has engaged in an unfair labor practice and to decide what remedies should be provided. States and local governments can, on the other hand, impose requirements when acting as market participants, such as requiring that all contractors sign a project labor agreement to avoid strikes when building a public works project, that they could not if they were attempting to regulate those employers' labor relations directly.

Regulation of wages, benefits and working conditions

The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (FLSA) establishes minimum wage and overtime rights for most private sector workers, with a number of exemptions and exceptions. Congress amended the Act in 1974 to cover governmental employees, leading to a series of United States Supreme Court decisions in which the Court first held that the law was unconstitutional, then reversed itself to permit the FLSA to cover governmental employees.

The FLSA does not preempt state and local governments from providing greater protections under their own laws. A number of states have enacted higher minimum wages and extended their laws to cover workers who are excluded under the FLSA or to provide rights that federal law ignores.

Local governments have also adopted a number of "living wage" laws that require those employers that contract with them to pay higher minimum wages and benefits to their employees. The federal government, along with many state governments, likewise require employers to pay the prevailing wage, which typically reflects the standards established by unions' collective bargaining agreements in the area, to workers on public works projects.

The Employee Retirement Income Security Act establishes standards for the funding and operation of pension and health care plans provided by employers to their employees. The ERISA preempts most state legislation that attempts to regulate how such plans are administered and, to a great extent, what types of health care coverage they provide. ERISA also preempts state law claims that an employer discriminated against employees in order to prevent them from obtaining the benefits they would have earned otherwise or to retaliate against them for asserting their rights.

The Family and Medical Leave Act, passed in 1993, requires employers to provide workers with twelve weeks of unpaid medical leave and continuing medical benefit coverage in order to attend to certain medical conditions of close relatives or themselves. Many states have comparable statutory provisions; some states have offered greater protections.

The Occupational Safety and Health Act, signed into law in 1970 by President Richard Nixon, creates specific standards for workplace safety. The Act has spawned years of litigation by industry groups that have challenged the standards limiting the amount of permitted exposure to chemicals such as benzene. The Act also provides for protection for "whistleblowers" who complain to governmental authorities about unsafe conditions while allowing workers the right to refuse to work under unsafe conditions in certain circumstances. The Act allows states to take over the administration of OSHA in their jurisdictions, so long as they adopt state laws at least as protective of workers' rights as under federal law. More than half of the states have done so.

Employment discrimination and whistleblowers

While Congress passed laws barring racial discrimination by private employers in 1866 with the Civil Rights Act of 1866, the Supreme Court's decision in the Civil Rights Cases made that Act a dead letter for nearly a century. Congress adopted limited prohibitions against racial discrimination by defense contractors during World War II, but no general prohibition against employment discrimination until it passed Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which bars employment discrimination on the basis of race, gender, national origin and religion.

Congress amended that Act in 1972 to cover governmental employers, in 1981 to outlaw employment discrimination on the basis of pregnancy, and again in the Civil Rights Act of 1991 to overturn a number of decisions by the Supreme Court limiting employees' rights.

Congress has also protected the rights of workers over forty years of age in the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, passed in 1967, and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 also provides narrow prohibitions against certain types of employment discrimination based on immigration status.

Title VII encourages states to pass their own anti-discrimination laws; most states outside the South have done so. A number of states and local governments have also enacted statutes that expand on the rights that federal law offers, either by offering greater remedies or broader protections, or have legislated in areas that federal law does not cover, such as discrimination based on sexual orientation or marital status.

The states and the federal government have also enacted a welter of laws to protect whistleblowers; these statutes vary widely in what conduct is protected, what procedures must be followed to enforce the law and what remedies are provided. Public sector employees are also protected from retaliation by their employers for some forms of whistleblowing activities by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution.

Job security

While most state and federal laws start from the presumption that workers who are not covered by a collective bargaining agreement or an individual employment agreement are "at will" employees who can be fired without notice and for no stated reason, state and federal laws prohibiting discrimination or protecting the right to organize or engage in whistleblowing activities modify that rule by providing that discharge or other forms of discrimination are illegal if undertaken on grounds specifically prohibited by law.

In addition, a number of states have modified the general rule that employment is at will by holding that employees may, under that state's common law, have implied contract rights to fair treatment by their employers. US private-sector employees thus do not have the indefinite contracts (similar to US academic tenure) traditionally common in many European countries, Canada and New Zealand.

Public employees in both federal and state government are also typically covered by civil service systems that protect them from unjust discharge. Public employees who have enough rights against unjustified discharge by their employers may also acquire a property right in their jobs, which entitles them in turn to additional protections under the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

The Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act, better known by its acronym as the WARN Act, requires private sector employers to give sixty days' notice of large-scale layoffs and plant closures; it allows a number of exceptions for unforeseen emergencies and other cases. Several states have adopted more stringent requirements of their own.

Labor law in individual states

Right-to-work laws

The following 24 states are right-to-work states:

In addition, the territory of Guam also has right-to-work laws.

An employee's right-to-work is established under the state Constitution, not under legislative action.

Constitutional amendments

In 2010, the organization Save Our Secret Ballot pushed four states: Arizona, South Carolina, South Dakota, and Utah to pass constitutional amendments to ban Card check.


In 1959, California added the Division of Fair Employment Practices to the California Department of Industrial Relations. The Fair Employment and Housing Act of 1980 gave the division its own Department of Fair Employment and Housing, with the stated purpose of protecting citizens against harassment and employment discrimination on the basis of: age, ancestry, color, creed, denial of family and medical care leave, disability (including HIV/AIDS), marital status, medical condition, national origin, race, religion, sex, transgender and orientation. Sexual orientation was not specifically included in the original law but precedent was established based on case law. On October 9, 2011, California Governor Edmund G. "Jerry" Brown signed into law Assembly Bill No. 887 alters the meaning of gender for the purposes of discrimination laws that define sex as including gender so that California law now prohibits discrimination on the basis of gender identity and gender expression.

The state also has its own labor law covering agricultural workers, the California Agricultural Labor Relations Act.

See also


External links


is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third most extensive (after Alaska and Texas). It is home to the nation's 2nd and 6th largest census statistical areas (Greater Los Angeles area and San Francisco Bay Area, respectively), and eight of the nation's 50 most populated cities (Los Angeles, San Diego, San Jose, San Francisco, Fresno, Sacramento, Long Beach and Oakland). The capital city is Sacramento.

California's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west, to the Sierra Nevada mountains in the east - from the Redwood-Douglas-fir forests of the northwest, to the Mojave Desert areas in the southeast. The center of the state is dominated by Central Valley, a major agricultural area. California contains both the highest and lowest points in the contiguous United States (Mount Whitney and Death Valley), and has the 3rd longest coastline of all states (after Alaska and Florida). Earthquakes are a common occurrence due to the state's location along the Pacific Ring of Fire: about 37,000 are recorded annually.

The name California once referred to a large area of North America claimed by Spain that included much of modern-day Southwestern United States and the Baja California peninsula. Beginning in the late 18th century, the area known as Alta California, comprising the California territory north of the Baja Peninsula, was colonized by the Spanish Empire as part of New Spain. In 1821, Alta California became a part of Mexico following its successful war for independence. Shortly after the beginning of the Mexican-American War in 1846, a group of American settlers in Sonoma declared an independent California Republic in Alta California. Though its existence was short-lived, its flag became the precursor for California's current state flag. American victory in the war led to the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, in which Mexico ceded Alta California to the United States. Western areas of Alta California became the state of California, which was admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850.

The California Gold Rush beginning in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic change, with large scale immigration from the U.S. and abroad and an accompanying economic boom. Key developments in the early 20th century included the emergence of Los Angeles as the center of the American entertainment industry, and the growth of a large, state-wide tourism sector. The late 20th century saw the development of the technology and information sectors, punctuated by the growth of Silicon Valley (part of the San Francisco Bay Area). California's prosperous agricultural industry also emerged; at least half of the fresh fruit produced in the United States are now cultivated in California, and the state also leads in the production of vegetables. Other important contributors to its economy include aerospace, education, and manufacturing. If California were a country, it would have the 8th largest economy in the world and it would be the 34th most populous nation.


The word California originally referred to the entire region composed of the Baja California peninsula of Mexico, the current U.S. states of California, Nevada, and Utah, and parts of Arizona, New Mexico, and Wyoming.

The name California is most commonly believed to have derived from a fictional paradise peopled by Black Amazons and ruled by Queen Calafia. The story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a remote land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts, and rich in gold.

Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California, very close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, which was inhabited by black women without a single man among them, and they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with strong passionate hearts and great virtue. The island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the bold and craggy rocks.

Chapter CLVII of The Adventures of Esplandián

The name California is the fifth oldest surviving European place-name in the US and was applied to what is now the southern tip of Baja California peninsula as the Island of California by a Spanish expedition led by Diego de Becerra and Fortún Ximénez, who landed there in 1533 at the behest of Hernán Cortés.


A topographic map of California
A view of the Pacific coast in Big Sur
Aerial view of the California Central Valley

California adjoins the Pacific Ocean to the west, Oregon to the north, Nevada and Arizona to the east, and the Mexican state of Baja California to the south. With an area of 160,000 square miles (414,000 km2), it is the 3rd largest state in the United States in size, after Alaska and Texas. If it were a country, California would be the 59th-largest in the world in area.

In the middle of the state lies the California Central Valley, bounded by the coastal mountain ranges in the west, the Sierra Nevada to the east, the Cascade Range in the north and the Tehachapi Mountains in the south. The Central Valley is California's agricultural heartland and grows approximately one-third of the nation's food.

Divided in two by the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, the northern portion, the Sacramento Valley serves as the watershed of the Sacramento River, while the southern portion, the San Joaquin Valley is the watershed for the San Joaquin River; both areas derive their names from the rivers that transit them. With dredging, the Sacramento and the San Joaquin Rivers have remained sufficiently deep that several inland cities are seaports.

The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta serves as a critical water supply hub for the state. Water is routed through an extensive network of canals and pumps out of the delta, that traverse nearly the length of the state, including the Central Valley Project and the State Water Project. Water from the Delta provides drinking water for nearly 23 million people, almost two-thirds of the state's population, and provides water to farmers on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley. The Channel Islands are located off the southern coast.

The Sierra Nevada (Spanish for "snowy range") includes the highest peak in the contiguous forty-eight states, Mount Whitney, at 14,505 ft (4421 m). The range embraces Yosemite Valley, famous for its glacially carved domes, and Sequoia National Park, home to the giant sequoia trees, the largest living organisms on Earth, and the deep freshwater lake, Lake Tahoe, the largest lake in the state by volume.

To the east of the Sierra Nevada are Owens Valley and Mono Lake, an essential migratory bird habitat. In the western part of the state is Clear Lake, the largest freshwater lake by area entirely in California. Though Lake Tahoe is larger, it is divided by the California/Nevada border. The Sierra Nevada falls to Arctic temperatures in winter and has several dozen small glaciers, including Palisade Glacier, the southernmost glacier in the United States.

About 45 percent of the state's total surface area is covered by forests, and California's diversity of pine species is unmatched by any other state. California contains more forestland than any other state except Alaska. Many of the trees in the California White Mountains are the oldest in the world; one Bristlecone pine has an age of 4,700 years.

In the south is a large inland salt lake, the Salton Sea. The south-central desert is called the Mojave; to the northeast of the Mojave lies Death Valley, which contains the lowest and hottest place in North America, the Badwater Basin at -282 feet (-86.0 m). The horizontal distance from the nadir of Death Valley to the summit of Mount Whitney is less than 90 miles (140 km). Indeed, almost all of southeastern California is arid, hot desert, with routine extreme high temperatures during the summer. The southeastern border of California with Arizona is entirely formed by the Colorado River, from which the southern part of the state gets about half of its water.

Along the California coast are several major metropolitan areas, including Greater Los Angeles Area, the San Francisco Bay Area, and the San Diego metropolitan area.

As part of the Ring of Fire, California is subject to tsunamis, floods, droughts, Santa Ana winds, wildfires, landslides on steep terrain, and has several volcanoes. It sees numerous earthquakes due to several faults, in particular the San Andreas Fault.


Snow on the mountains of California
Death Valley, in the desert regions of Eastern California

California's climate varies from Mediterranean to subarctic.

Much of the state has a Mediterranean climate, with cool, rainy winters and dry summers. The cool California Current offshore often creates summer fog near the coast. Farther inland, one encounters colder winters and hotter summers.

Northern parts of the state average higher annual rainfall than the south. California's mountain ranges influence the climate as well: some of the rainiest parts of the state are west-facing mountain slopes. Northwestern California has a temperate climate, and the Central Valley has a Mediterranean climate but with greater temperature extremes than the coast. The high mountains, including the Sierra Nevada, have an alpine climate with snow in winter and mild to moderate heat in summer.

The east side of California's mountains produce a rain shadow, creating expansive deserts. The higher elevation deserts of eastern California see hot summers and cold winters, while the low deserts east of the southern California mountains experience hot summers and nearly frostless mild winters. Death Valley, a desert with large expanses below sea level, is considered the hottest location in North America; the highest temperature in the Western Hemisphere, 134 °F (57 °C), was recorded there on July 10, 1913. The lowest temperature in California was -45 °F in 1937 in Boca.


California is one of the richest and most diverse parts of the world, and includes some of the most endangered ecological communities. California is part of the Nearctic ecozone and spans a number of terrestrial ecoregions.

California's large number of endemic species includes relict species, which have died out elsewhere, such as the Catalina Ironwood (Lyonothamnus floribundus). Many other endemics originated through differentiation or adaptive radiation, whereby multiple species develop from a common ancestor to take advantage of diverse ecological conditions such as the California lilac (Ceanothus). Many California endemics have become endangered, as urbanization, logging, overgrazing, and the introduction of exotic species have encroached on their habitat.

Flora and fauna

California boasts several superlatives in its collection of flora: the largest trees, the tallest trees, and the oldest trees. California's native grasses are perennial plants. After European contact, these were generally replaced by invasive species of European annual grasses; and, in modern times, California's hills turn a characteristic golden-brown in summer.

Because California has the greatest diversity of climate and terrain, the state has six life zones which are the lower Sonoran (desert); upper Sonoran (foothill regions and some coastal lands), transition (coastal areas and moist northeastern counties); and the Canadian, Hudsonian, and Arctic Zones, comprising the state's highest elevations.

Plant life in the dry climate of the lower Sonoran zone contains a diversity of native cactus, mesquite, and paloverde. The Joshua tree is found in the Mojave Desert. Flowering plants include the dwarf desert poppy and a variety of asters. Fremont cottonwood and valley oak thrive in the Central Valley. The upper Sonoran zone includes the chaparral belt, characterized by forests of small shrubs, stunted trees, and herbaceous plants. Nemophila, mint, Phacelia, Viola, and the California poppy (Eschscholzia californica) - the state flower - also flourish in this zone, along with the lupine, more species of which occur here than anywhere else in the world.

The transition zone includes most of California's forests with the redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and the "big tree" or giant sequoia (Sequoia gigantea), among the oldest living things on earth (some are said to have lived at least 4,000 years). Tanbark oak, California laurel, Sugar Pine, madrona, broad-leaved maple, and Douglas-fir also grow here. Forest floors are covered with swordfern, alumnroot, barrenwort, and trillium, and there are tickets of huckleberry, azalea, elder, and wild currant. Characteristic wild flowers include varieties of mariposa, tulip, and tiger and leopard lilies.

The high elevations of the Canadian zone allow the Jeffrey Pine, red fir, and Lodgepole Pine to thrive. Brushy areas are abundant with dwarf manzanita and ceanothus; the unique Sierra puffball is also found here. Right below the timeberline, in the Hudsonian zone, the whitebark, foxtail, and silver pines grow. At about 10,500 ft (3,200 m), begins the Arctic zone, a treeless region whose flora include a number of wildflowers, including Sierra primrose, yellow columbine, alpine buttercup, and alpine shooting star.

Common plants that have been introduced to the state include the eucalyptus, acacia, pepper tree, geranium, and Scotch broom. The species that are federally classified as endangered are the Contra Costa wallflower, Antioch Dunes evening primrose, Solano Grass, San Clemente Island larkspur, salt marsh bird's beak, McDonald's rock-cress, and Santa Barbara Island Liveforever. As of December 1997, 85 plant species were listed as threatened or endangered.

In the deserts of the lower Sonoran zone, the mammals include the jackrabbit, kangaroo rat, squirrel, and opossum. Common birds include the owl, roadrunner, Cactus Wren, and various species of hawk. The area's reptilian life include the sidewinder viper, desert tortoise, and horned toad. The upper Sonoran zone boasts mammals such as the antelope, brown-footed woodrat, and Ring-tailed cat. Birds unique to this zone are the California Thrasher, bushtit, and California Condor.

In the transition zone, there are Colombian Black-tailed Deer, black bears, gray foxes, cougars, bobcats, and Roosevelt elk. Reptiles such as the garter snakes and rattlesnakes inhabit the zone. In addition, amphibians such as the water puppy and redwood salamander are common too. Birds such as the kingfisher, chickadee, towhee, and hummingbird thrive here as well.

The Canadian zone mammals include the Mountain weasel, Snowshoe hare, and several species of chipmunks. Conspicuous birds include the blue-fronted jay, Sierra chickadee. Sierra Hermit Thrush, water ouzel, and Townsend's Solitaire. As one ascends into the Hudsonian zone, birds become scarcer. While the Sierra rosy finch is the only bird native to the high Arctic region, other bird species such as the hummingbird and Clark's Nutcracker. Principal mammals found in this region include the Sierra coney, White-tailed jackrabbit, and the Bighorn Sheep. As of April 2003, the Bighorn Sheep was listed as endangered by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The fauna found throughout several zones are the mule deer, coyote, mountain lion, Northern Flicker, and several species of hawk and sparrow.

Aquatic life in California thrives, from the state's mountain lakes and streams to the rocky Pacific coastline. Numerous trout species are found, among them rainbow, golden, and Tahoe. Migratory species of salmon are common as well. Deep-sea life forms include sea bass, yellowfin tuna, barracuda, and several types of whale. Native to the cliffs of northern California are seals, sea lions, and many types of shorebirds, including migratory species.

As of April 2003, 118 California animals were on the federal endangered list; 181 plants were listed as endangered or threatened. Endangered animals include the San Joaquin kitfox, Point Arena mountain beaver, Pacific pocket mouse, Salt Marsh Harvest Mouse, Morro Bay kangaroo rat (and five other species of kangaroo rat), Amargosa vole, California Least Tern, California Condor, Loggerhead Shrike, San Clemente sage sparrow, San Francisco garter snake, five species of salamander, three species of chub, and two species of pupfish. Eleven butterflies are also endangered and two that are threatened are on the federal list. Among threatened animals are the coastal California Gnatcatcher, Paiute cutthroat trout, southern sea otter, and Northern Spotted Owl. California has a total of 290,821 acres (1,176.91 km2) of National Wildlife Refuges. As of September 2010, 123 California animals were listed as either endangered or threatened on the federal list provided by the US Fish & Wildlife Service. Also, as of the same year, 178 species of California plants were listed either as endangered or threatened on this federal list.


The vast majority of rivers in California are dammed as part of two massive water projects: the Central Valley Project, providing water to the agricultural central valley, the California State Water Project diverting water to from northern to southern California. The state's coasts, rivers, and other bodies of water are regulated by the California Coastal Commission.

The two most prominent rivers within California are the Sacramento River and the San Joaquin River, which drain the Central Valley and the west slope of the Sierra Nevada and flow to the Pacific Ocean through San Francisco Bay. Several major tributaries feed into the Sacramento and the San Joaquin, including the Pit River, the Tuolumne River, and the Feather River.

The Eel River and Salinas River each drain portions of the California coast, north and south of San Francisco Bay, respectively, and the Eel river is the largest river in the state to remain in its natural un-dammed state. The Mojave River is the primary watercourse in the Mojave Desert, and the Santa Ana River drains much of the Transverse Ranges as it bisects Southern California. Some other important rivers are the Klamath River and the Trinity River in the far north coast, and the Colorado River on the southeast border with Arizona.


Mount Whitney (l), the highest point in the Contiguous U.S., is less than 90 miles (140 km) away from Badwater Basin in Death Valley (r), the lowest point in North America


Mission San Diego de Alcalá drawn as it was in 1848. Established in 1769, it is the first of the California Missions established

Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America; The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups also were diverse in their political organization with bands, tribes, villages, and on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash, Pomo and Salinan. Trade, intermarriage and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups.

The first European to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was the Portuguese Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo in 1542. Some 37 years later English explorer Francis Drake also explored and claimed an undefined portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila Galleons on their return trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565. Sebastián Vizcaíno explored and mapped the coast of California in 1602 for New Spain.

Spanish missionaries began setting up 21 California Missions along the coast of what became known as Alta California (Upper California), together with small towns and presidios.

19th century

The Russians from Alaska established their largest settlement in California, Fort Ross, in 1812
San Francisco harbor c. 1850. Between 1847 and 1870, the population of San Francisco increased from 500 to 150,000
Chinese gold miners in California

In 1821 the Mexican War of Independence gave Mexico (including California) independence from Spain; for the next 25 years, Alta California remained a remote northern province of the nation of Mexico.

Cattle ranches, or ranchos, emerged as the dominant institutions of Mexican California. After Mexican independence from Spain, the chain of missions became the property of the Mexican government and were secularized by 1834. The ranchos developed under ownership by Californios (Spanish-speaking Californians) who had received land grants, and traded cowhides and tallow with Boston merchants.

Beginning in the 1820s, trappers and settlers from the U.S. and Canada began to arrive in Northern California. These new arrivals used the Siskiyou Trail, California Trail, Oregon Trail and Old Spanish Trail to cross the rugged mountains and harsh deserts surrounding California. In this period, Imperial Russia explored the California coast and established a trading post at Fort Ross.

In 1846 settlers rebelled against Mexican rule during the Bear Flag Revolt. Afterwards, rebels raised the Bear Flag (featuring a bear, a star, a red stripe and the words "California Republic") at Sonoma. The Republic's first and only president was William B. Ide, who played a pivotal role during the Bear Flag Revolt.

The California Republic was short lived; the same year marked the outbreak of the Mexican-American War (1846-1848). When Commodore John D. Sloat of the United States Navy sailed into Monterey Bay and began the military occupation of California by the United States, Northern California capitulated in less than a month to the U.S. forces. After a series of defensive battles in Southern California, the Treaty of Cahuenga was signed by the Californios on January 13, 1847, securing American control in California.

Following the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that ended the war, the region was divided between Mexico and the U.S.; the western territory of Alta California, was to become the U.S. state of California, and Arizona, Nevada, Colorado and Utah became U.S. Territories, while the lower region of California, the Baja Peninsula, remained in the possession of Mexico.

In 1848 the non-native population of California was estimated to be no more than 15,000. After gold was discovered, the population burgeoned with U.S. citizens, Europeans and other immigrants during the great California Gold Rush. By 1854 over 300,000 settlers had come. On September 9, 1850, as part of the Compromise of 1850, California was admitted to the United States undivided as a free state, denying the expansion of slavery to the Pacific Coast.

California's native population precipitously declined, above all, from Eurasian diseases to which they had no natural immunity. Like in other states, the native inhabitants were forcefully removed from their lands by incoming miners, ranchers, and farmers. And despite the fact that California entered the union as a free state, the "loitering or orphaned Indians" were de facto enslaved by Mexican and Anglo-American masters under the 1853 Act for the Government and Protection of Indians. There were several massacres in which hundreds of indigenous people were killed. Between 1850 and 1860, California paid around 1.5 million dollars (some 250,000 of which was reimbursed by the federal government) to hire militias whose purpose was to protect settlers from the indigenous populations. In subsequent decades, the native population was placed in reservations and rancherias, which were often very small and isolated and lacked adequate natural resources or funding from the government to sustain the populations living on them. As a result, the rise of California brought great hardship for the native inhabitants. Several scholars and Native American activists, including Benjamin Madley and Ed Castillo, have described the actions of the California government as a genocide.

The seat of government for California under Spanish and later Mexican rule was located at Monterey from 1777 until 1846. In 1849 the Constitutional Convention was first held there. Among the duties was the task of determining the location for the new state capital. The first legislative sessions were held in San Jose (1850-1851). Subsequent locations included Vallejo (1852-1853), and nearby Benicia (1853-1854); these locations eventually proved to be inadequate as well. The capital has been located in Sacramento since 1854 with only a short break in 1861 when legislative sessions were held in San Francisco due to flooding in Sacramento.

Initially, travel between California and the rest of the continental U.S. was time consuming and dangerous. A more direct connection came in 1869 with the completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad through Donner Pass in the Sierra Nevada mountains. Once completed, hundreds of thousands of U.S. citizens came west, where new Californians were discovering that land in the state, if irrigated during the dry summer months, was extremely well suited to fruit cultivation and agriculture in general. Vast expanses of wheat, other cereal crops, vegetable crops, cotton, and nut and fruit trees were grown (including oranges in Southern California), and the foundation was laid for the state's prodigious agricultural production in the Central Valley and elsewhere. The large earthquake that hit San Francisco in 1906 devastated the city.

20th century

Hollywood film studios, 1922

Migration to California accelerated during the early-20th century with the completion of major transcontinental highways like the Lincoln Highway and Route 66. In the period from 1900 to 1965, the population grew from fewer than one million to become the most populous state in the Union. In 1940, the Census Bureau reported California's population as 6.0% Hispanic, 2.4% Asian, and 89.5% non-Hispanic white. The 1906 San Francisco earthquake and 1928 St. Francis Dam flood remain the deadliest in U.S history.

In order to meet the population's needs, major engineering feats like the California and Los Angeles Aqueducts; the Oroville and Shasta Dams; and the Bay and Golden Gate Bridges were built across the state. The state government also adopted the California Master Plan for Higher Education in 1960 to develop a highly efficient system of public education.

Meanwhile, attracted to the mild Mediterranean climate, cheap land, and the state's wide variety of geography, filmmakers established the studio system in Hollywood in the 1920s. A couple of decades later, Stanford University and its Dean of Engineering Frederick Terman began encouraging faculty and graduates to stay in California instead of leaving the state, and develop a high-tech region in the area now known as Silicon Valley. As a result of these efforts, California is currently regarded as a world center of the entertainment and music industries, of technology, engineering, and the aerospace industry, and as the U.S. center of agricultural production. Just before the "Dot Com Bust" California had the 5th largest economy in the world among nations.

Armed forces

The main gate of Camp Pendleton, a major base of the United States Marine Corps

In California, as of 2002, the US Department of Defense had

In California, as of 2000 there were 2,569,340 veterans of US military service: 504,010 served in World War II, 301,034 in the Korean War, 754,682 during the Vietnam War, and 278,003 during 1990-2000 (including the Persian Gulf War).

California's military forces consist of the Army and Air National Guard, the naval and state military reserve (militia), and the California Cadet Corps.


The Hollywood Sign, a symbol of the American Film industry

The culture of California is a Western culture and most clearly has its modern roots in the culture of the United States, but also, historically, many Hispanic influences. As a border and coastal state, Californian culture has been greatly influenced by several large immigrant populations, especially those from Latin America.

California has long been a subject of interest in the public mind and has often been promoted by its boosters as a kind of paradise. In the early 20th century, fueled by the efforts of state and local boosters, many Americans saw the Golden State as an ideal resort destination, sunny and dry all year round with easy access to the ocean and mountains. In the 1960s, popular music groups such as The Beach Boys promoted the image of Californians as laid-back, tanned beach-goers.

The California Gold Rush of the 1850s is still seen as a symbol of California's economic style, which tends to generate technology, social, entertainment, and economic fads and booms and related busts.[citation needed]


The largest religious denominations by number of adherents as a percentage of California's population in 2008 were the Catholic Church with 31 percent; Evangelical Protestants with 18 percent; and Mainline Protestants with 14 percent. Those unaffiliated with any religion represented 21 percent of the population. The American Jewish Yearbook placed the total Jewish population of California at about 1,194,190 in 2006.

The first priests to come to California were Roman Catholic missionaries from Spain. Roman Catholics founded 21 missions along the California coast, as well as the cities of Los Angeles and San Francisco. California continues to have a large Roman Catholic population due to the large numbers of Mexicans and Central Americans living within its borders. California has twelve dioceses and two archdioceses, the Archdiocese of Los Angeles and the Archdiocese of San Francisco, the former being the largest archdiocese in the United States.

A Pew Research Center survey revealed that California is somewhat less religious than the rest of the US: 62 percent of Californians say they are "absolutely certain" of the belief in God, while in the nation 71 percent say so. The survey also revealed 48 percent of Californians say religion is "very important," compared to 56 percent nationally.


Gross Domestic Product of California by sector for 2008.
Were California an independent country, its gross domestic product would be ranked between eighth and eleventh in the world.

The economy of California is large enough to be comparable to that of the largest of countries. FY 2011, the gross state product (GSP) is about $1.96 trillion, the largest in the United States. California is responsible for 13.1 percent of the United States' $14.96 trillion gross domestic product (GDP). California's GDP is larger than that of all but 8 countries in dollar terms (the United States, China, Japan, Germany, France, Brazil, the United Kingdom, and Italy). It's larger than the GDPs of Russia, India, Canada, Australia, and Spain. In terms of Purchasing Power Parity, it's larger than all but 9 countries (the United States, China, India, Japan, Germany, Russia, Brazil, France, the United Kingdom, Italy), larger than Mexico, South Korea, Spain, Canada, and Turkey.

In terms of jobs, the five largest sectors in California are trade, transportation, and utilities; government; professional and business services; education and health services; and leisure and hospitality. In terms of output, the five largest sectors are financial services, followed by trade, transportation, and utilities; education and health services; government; and manufacturing.

California currently has the 3rd highest unemployment rate in the nation at 9.8% as of November 2012.

California's economy is very dependent on trade and international related commerce accounts for approximately one-quarter of the state's economy. In 2008, California exported $144 billion worth of goods, up from $134 billion in 2007 and $127 billion in 2006. Computers and electronic products are California's top export, accounting for 42 percent of all the state's exports in 2008.

Agriculture is an important sector in California's economy. Farming-related sales more than quadrupled over the past three decades, from $7.3 billion in 1974 to nearly $31 billion in 2004. This increase has occurred despite a 15 percent decline in acreage devoted to farming during the period, and water supply suffering from chronic instability. Factors contributing to the growth in sales-per-acre include more intensive use of active farmlands and technological improvements in crop production. In 2008, California's 81,500 farms and ranches generated $36.2 billion products revenue.

Per capita GDP in 2007 was $38,956, ranking eleventh in the nation. Per capita income varies widely by geographic region and profession. The Central Valley is the most impoverished, with migrant farm workers making less than minimum wage. Recently, the San Joaquin Valley was characterized as one of the most economically depressed regions in the U.S., on par with the region of Appalachia. Many coastal cities include some of the wealthiest per-capita areas in the U.S. The high-technology sectors in Northern California, specifically Silicon Valley, in Santa Clara and San Mateo counties, have emerged from the economic downturn caused by the dot-com bust.

In 2010, there were more than 663,000 millionaires in the state, more than any other state in the nation.



Moss Landing Power Plant, the state's largest power production source.

Because it is the most populous U.S. state, California is one of the country's largest users of energy. However because of its mild weather and strong environmental movement, its per capita energy use is one of the smallest of any U.S. state. Due to the high electricity demand, California imports more electricity than any other state, primarily hydroelectric power from states in the Pacific Northwest (via Path 15 and Path 66) and coal- and natural gas-fired production from the desert Southwest via Path 46.

As a result of the state's strong environmental movement, California has the some of the most aggressive renewable energy goals in the United States, with a target for California to obtain a third of its electricity from renewables by 2020. Currently, several solar power plants such as the Solar Energy Generating Systems facility are located in the Mojave Desert. California's wind farms include Altamont Pass, San Gorgonio Pass, and Tehachapi Pass. Several dams across the state provide hydro-electric power.

The state's crude oil and natural gas deposits are located in the Central Valley and along the coast, including the large Midway-Sunset Oil Field. Natural gas-fired power plants typically account for more than one-half of State electricity generation.

California is also home to two major nuclear power plants: Diablo Canyon and San Onofre. However, voters banned the approval of new nuclear power plants since the late 1970s because of concerns over radioactive waste disposal. In addition, several cities such as Oakland, Berkeley and Davis have declared themselves as nuclear-free zones.


The Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco, one of California's most famous landmarks
Caltrans builds tall "stack" interchanges with soaring ramps that offer impressive views

California's vast terrain is connected by an extensive system of controlled-access highways ('freeways'), limited-access roads ('expressways'), and highways. California is known for its car culture, giving California's cities a reputation for severe traffic congestion. Construction and maintenance of state roads and statewide transportation planning are primarily the responsibility of the California Department of Transportation, nicknamed "Caltrans". The rapidly growing population of the state is straining all of its transportation networks, and California has some of the worst roads in the United States. The Reason Foundation's 19th Annual Report on the Performance of State Highway Systems ranked California's highways the third-worst of any state, with Alaska second, and Rhode Island first.

The state has been a pioneer in road construction. One of the state's more visible landmarks, the Golden Gate Bridge, was once the longest suspension bridge main span in the world at 4,200 feet (1,300 m) when it opened in 1937. With its orange paint and panoramic views of the bay, this highway bridge is a popular tourist attraction and also accommodates pedestrians and bicyclists. The San Francisco - Oakland Bay Bridge (often abbreviated the "Bay Bridge"), completed in 1936, transports approximately 280,000 vehicles per day on two-decks. Its two sections meet at Yerba Buena Island through the world's largest diameter transportation bore tunnel, at 76 feet (23 m) wide by 58 feet (18 m) high. The Arroyo Seco Parkway, connecting Los Angeles and Pasadena, opened in 1940 as the first freeway in the Western United States. It was later extended south to the Four Level Interchange in downtown Los Angeles, regarded as the first stack interchange ever built.

Los Angeles International Airport (the 6th busiest airport in the world) and San Francisco International Airport (the 21th busiest airport in the world) are major hubs for trans-Pacific and transcontinental traffic. There are about a dozen important commercial airports and many more general aviation airports throughout the state.

California also has several important seaports. The giant seaport complex formed by the Port of Los Angeles and the Port of Long Beach in Southern California is the largest in the country and responsible for handling about a fourth of all container cargo traffic in the United States. The Port of Oakland, fourth largest in the nation, also handles trade entering from the Pacific Rim to the rest of the country.

The California Highway Patrol is the largest statewide police agency in the United States in terms of employment with over 10,000 employees. They are responsible for providing any police-sanctioned service to anyone on California's state maintained highways and on state property.

The California Department of Motor Vehicles is by far the largest in North America. By the end of 2009, the California DMV had 26,555,006 driver's licenses and ID cards on file. In 2010, there were 1.17 million new vehicle registrations in force.

Intercity rail travel is provided by Amtrak California, which manages the three busiest intercity rail lines in the U.S. outside the Northeast Corridor, all of which are funded by Caltrans. This service is becoming increasingly popular over flying and ridership is continuing to set records, especially on the LAX-SFO route. Integrated subway and light rail networks are found in Los Angeles (Metro Rail) and San Francisco (MUNI Metro). Light rail systems are also found in San Jose (VTA), San Diego (San Diego Trolley), Sacramento (RT Light Rail), and Northern San Diego County (Sprinter). Furthermore, commuter rail networks serve the San Francisco Bay Area (ACE, BART, Caltrain), Greater Los Angeles (Metrolink), and San Diego County (Coaster).

The California High-Speed Rail Authority was created in 1996 by the state to implement an extensive 700 mile (1127 km) rail system. Construction was approved by the voters during the November 2008 general election, a $9.95 billion state bond will go toward its construction. Nearly all counties operate bus lines, and many cities operate their own city bus lines as well. Intercity bus travel is provided by Greyhound and Amtrak Thruway Coach.

In March 2011, California ranked as a top BEST state in the American State Litter Scorecard for overall effectiveness and quality of its public space cleanliness - primarily roadway litter - from state and related debris removal efforts.


California's interconnected water system is the world's largest, managing over 40,000,000 acre feet of water per year, centered on six main systems of aqueducts and infrastructure projects. Water use and conservation in California is a politically divisive issue, as state experiences periodic droughts and has to balance the demands of its large agricultural and urban sectors, especially in the arid southern portion of the state. The state's widespread redistribution of water also invites the frequent scorn of environmentalists.

The California Water Wars, a struggle between Los Angeles and the Owens Valley for water rights, is one of the most well-known examples of the lengths people will go to in order to secure adequate water supplies. Former California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger said: "We've been in crisis for quite some time because we're now 38 million people and not anymore 18 million people like we were in the late 60s. So it developed into a battle between environmentalists and farmers and between the south and the north and between rural and urban. And everyone has been fighting for the last four decades about water."

Government and politics

State government

California is governed as a republic, with three branches of government - the executive branch consisting of the Governor and the other independently elected constitutional officers; the legislative branch consisting of the Assembly and Senate; and the judicial branch consisting of the Supreme Court of California and lower courts of California. The state also allows direct participation of the electorate by initiative, referendum, recall, and ratification. California allows each political party to choose whether to have a closed primary or a primary where only party members and independents vote. The state's capital is Sacramento.

The Governor of California and the other state constitutional officers serve four-year terms and may be re-elected only once. The California State Legislature consists of a 40-member Senate and 80-member Assembly. Senators serve four-year terms and Assembly members two. Members of the Assembly are subject to term limits of three terms, and members of the Senate are subject to term limits of two terms.

California's legal system is explicitly based upon English common law (as is the case with all other states except Louisiana) but carries a few features from Spanish civil law, such as community property. Capital punishment is a legal form of punishment and the state has the largest "Death Row" population in the country (though Texas is far more active in carrying out executions). California's "Death Row" is in San Quentin State Prison situated north of San Francisco in Marin County. Executions in California are currently on hold indefinitely as human rights issues are addressed. California's prison population grew from 25,000 in 1980 to over 170,000 in 2007.

California's judiciary is the largest in the United States (with a total of 1,600 judges, while the federal system has only about 840). It is supervised by the seven Justices of the Supreme Court of California. Justices of the Supreme Court and Courts of Appeal are appointed by the Governor, but are subject to retention by the electorate every 12 years.

Cities, towns and counties

The state's local government is divided into 58 counties and 482 incorporated cities and towns; of which 460 are cities and 22 are towns. Under California law, the terms "city" and "town" are explicitly interchangeable; the name of an incorporated municipality in the state can either be "City of (Name)" or "Town of (Name)".

Sacramento became California's first incorporated city on February 27, 1850. San Jose, San Diego and Benicia tied for California's second incorporated city, each receiving incorporation on March 27, 1850. Jurupa Valley became the state's most recent and 482nd incorporated municipality on July 1, 2011.

The majority of these cities and towns are within one of five metropolitan areas. Sixty-eight percent of California's population lives in its three largest metropolitan areas, Greater Los Angeles Area, the San Francisco Bay Area, and the Riverside-San Bernardino Area.[citation needed] Although smaller, the other two large population centers are the San Diego and Greater Sacramento metro areas.

The state recognizes two kinds of cities: charter and general law. General law cities owe their existence to state law and are consequentially governed by it; charter cities are governed by their own city charters. Cities incorporated in the 19th century tend to be charter cities. All ten of the state's most populous cities are charter cities.


Torrance High School is one of the oldest high schools in continuous use in California and a popular location for television and motion picture production

Public secondary education consists of high schools that teach elective courses in trades, languages, and liberal arts with tracks for gifted, college-bound and industrial arts students. California's public educational system is supported by a unique constitutional amendment that requires a minimum annual funding level for grades K-12 and community colleges that grows with the economy and student enrollment figures.

California had over 6.2 million school students in the 2005-06 school year. Funding and staffing levels in California schools lag behind other states. In expenditure per pupil, California ranked 29th (of the 50 states and the District of Columbia) in 2005-06. In teaching staff expenditure per pupil, California ranked 49th of 51. In overall teacher-pupil ratio, California was also 49th, with 21 students per teacher. Only Arizona and Utah were lower.

A 2007 study concluded that California's public school system was "broken".

California's public postsecondary education offers a unique three tiered system:

  • The research university system in the state is the University of California (UC), a public university system. There are ten general UC campuses, and a number of specialized campuses in the UC system. The system was intended to accept the top 10% of California high school students, but under severe budget restrictions, this has since been diminishing. The UC system was originally given direct authority in awarding Ph.Ds, but this has since changed several years ago, California's Master Plan for Higher Education granting the CSU to award several Doctoral degrees.
  • The California State University (CSU) system has almost 430,000 students, making it the largest university system in the United States. CSU was intended to accept the top one-third of high school students, but under severe budget woes and record amount of applications, this has since changed. The CSU originally began as an educational system primarily intended for undergraduate education, but has since changed under California's Master Plan for Higher Education. The CSU has been granted the authority to award an ample amount of Doctoral degrees today.
  • The California Community Colleges System provides lower division coursework as well as basic skills and workforce training. It is the largest network of higher education in the US, composed of 112 colleges serving a student population of over 2.6 million.

California is also home to such notable private universities as Stanford University, the University of Southern California, the California Institute of Technology, and the Claremont Colleges. California has hundreds of other private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions.


Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, the only stadium in the world to host the Olympic Games twice: in 1932 and 1984

The State of California is the only US state to have hosted both the Summer and Winter Olympics. The 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics were held in Los Angeles. Squaw Valley Ski Resort in the Lake Tahoe region hosted the 1960 Winter Olympics. Multiple games during the 1994 FIFA World Cup took place in California, with the Rose Bowl in Pasadena hosting eight matches including the final, while Stanford Stadium in Palo Alto hosted six matches.

California has nineteen major professional sports league franchises, far more than any other state. The San Francisco Bay Area has seven major league teams spread in its three major cities: San Francisco, San Jose, and Oakland. While the Greater Los Angeles Area is home to ten major league franchises, it is also the largest metropolitan area not to have a team from the National Football League. San Diego has two major league teams, and Sacramento has one. The NFL Super Bowl has been hosted in California 11 times at four different stadiums: Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, the Rose Bowl, Stanford Stadium, and San Diego's Qualcomm Stadium.

Home to some of the most prominent universities in the United States, California has long had many respected collegiate sports programs. California is home to the oldest college bowl game, the annual Rose Bowl, among others.

California has also long been a hub for motorsports and auto racing. The city of Long Beach holds an event every year in the month of April, which is host to IndyCar Series racing through the streets of downtown. Long Beach has hosted Formula One events there in the past, and also currently hosts an event on the American Le Mans Series schedule. Auto Club Speedway is a speedway in Fontana, and currently hosts one to two NASCAR Sprint Cup Series races a year, and used to host CART Indycar races. Infineon Raceway in Sonoma is a multi-purpose facility, featuring a road course and a drag strip. The road course is home to a NASCAR event, an IndyCar event, and used to host an International Motor Sports Association sports car event. The drag strip hosts a yearly NHRA event. Mazda Raceway Laguna Seca is a roadcourse that currently hosts an ALMS event, and formerly hosted CART events. The Auto Club Raceway at Pomona has hosted NHRA drag racing for over 50 years.

Below is a list of major sports teams in California:

Club Sport League
Oakland Raiders American football National Football League
San Diego Chargers American football National Football League
San Francisco 49ers American football National Football League
Sacramento Mountain Lions American football United Football League
San Jose SaberCats Arena football Arena Football League
Los Angeles Dodgers Baseball Major League Baseball
Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim Baseball Major League Baseball
Oakland Athletics Baseball Major League Baseball
San Diego Padres Baseball Major League Baseball
San Francisco Giants Baseball Major League Baseball
Golden State Warriors Basketball National Basketball Association
Los Angeles Clippers Basketball National Basketball Association
Los Angeles Lakers Basketball National Basketball Association
Sacramento Kings Basketball National Basketball Association
Los Angeles Sparks Basketball Women's National Basketball Association
Anaheim Ducks Ice hockey National Hockey League
Los Angeles Kings Ice hockey National Hockey League
San Jose Sharks Ice hockey National Hockey League
Chivas USA Soccer Major League Soccer
Los Angeles Galaxy Soccer Major League Soccer
San Jose Earthquakes Soccer Major League Soccer
San Diego Sockers Soccer Professional Arena Soccer League

External links

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List of U.S. states by date of statehood
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